Home > Archives > Latest issue



International Review of PHYSICS - April 2009 - Papers





International Review of PHYSICS - Papers


go to top   The Bohm Approach to Quantum Teleportation and the Implicate Order
         by Ryo Morikawa

        Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 68-73


Abstract - In this article, an explanation of quantum teleportation using the Bohm approach will be presented. We will use a notion of information that is active, passive as well as inactive. The Copenhagen interpretation and the standard quantum theory are unable to provide an explanation of quantum teleportation. In this paper we also suggests the need to develop the notion further by linking it to Bohm’s notions of the implicate and explicate orders. We will discuss an underlying physical process although not directly observable has observable consequences. Furthermore, this approach demonstrates why classical information is needed at the final stages of measurement that produces quantum teleportation.
Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Quantum teleportation, Bohm theory, Unfold & Enfold, The implicate & explicate order.



go to top   Thermal Peculiarities of Stable Macroscopic Distribution of Applied Current in High-Temperature Superconductors
        by Vladimir R. Romanovskii

        Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 74-85


Abstract - The influence of the stable temperature rise induced by current charging on the current-carrying capacity of a high-temperature superconductor without stabilizing matrix is investigated. Two characteristic values of the electric field at which the convective and conductive heat transfer mechanisms mostly affect the formation of current charging states in the superconductor are defined. It is shown that its stable temperature preceding the onset of current instability not only is always above the coolant temperature but also increases with decrease in these characteristic electric fields. As a result, the current stability conditions are modified due to the thermal peculiarities of the current charging formation of stable electrodynamics states of the superconductor. Namely, the allowable stable values of electric field and current can be below or above those determined by a priori chosen critical parameters of the superconductor. The criteria allowing one to estimate the boundary of existence of these stability areas (sub-critical and over-critical) are written taking into account the size effect. The performed analysis reveals that the temperature-dependent heat capacity of superconductor leads to such shape of its voltage-current characteristics, which has only the positive slope during continuous current charging both before and after current instability onset. It is also proved that the thermal degradation of the current-carrying capacity of superconductor occurs in the sub-critical area. Due to this effect, the currents flowing stably in the superconductor are not only obviously less than the corresponding critical current, but also not increase proportionally to increasing cross-sectional area of superconductor or to its critical current density. These effects must be considered in investigations of current-carrying capacity of superconductors.

Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: High-Temperature superconductor; Voltage-Current characteristic; Applied Current; Temperature rise; Current instability.



go to top   Sputtered Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Growth
         by M. S. Aida

        Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 86-101


Abstract - The present review deals with the growth of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films by Rf ( Radio frequency 13.56 MHz) sputtering technique . A comprehensive study of growth mechanism is presented. An insight on the influence of substrate temperature and applied Rf powers on the growth mechanism is highlighted. During film growth the growing film surface undergo an intensive ion bombardment incoming from the plasma. The results of these interaction plasma substrate investigations were also presented.
Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Amorphous silicon; Thin films; Sputtering; Growth mechanism.



go to top   Modeling of Current Density and Surface Recombination Velocity Effect at Grain Boundary in Order to Optimize the Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cell Conversion Efficiency
         by Nisrine Benloucif , F. Mansour

        Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 102-108


Abstract - In this paper, for a polycrystalline silicon solar PN junction, the recombination current density in grain boundary is theoretically investigated.
Our analysis was done using front and rear passivation layers. Silicon nitride wafers are considered as a front passivation films, this new material has led to a significant enhancement of the conversion efficiency. In addition, we propose a functioning modeling of the rear passivation solar cell. The thin thermal oxide/Silicon nitride/ Silicon oxide rear passivation contact is chosen for its superior optical quality (Internal reflection) and its good electrical properties (Recombination surface velocity).
In order to understand the recombination processes, the obtain of current density through grain boundary is carried out. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the optimal surface recombination velocity at grain boundaries which permits to obtain a good improvement of the conversion efficiency
Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Polysilicon, Silicon Nitride, Grain Boundary, Conversion Efficiency.



go to top  Electro-Optical, Spectroscopical and Morphological Properties of Ultraviolet cured Polymer/Liquid Crystal Films
        by D. Benaissa, L. Méchernène, A. Addad, U. Maschke

        Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 109-114


Abstract - The electro-optical behavior of Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (PDLC) films was studied to understand the relationship between the conditions of preparation in terms of the extent of curing, the morphology, and the response to an external electrical field. The PDLC films were prepared by phase separation of a diacrylate/nematic low molecular weight liquid crystal mixture induced by Ultraviolet (UV) curing as a function of irradiation dose. The polymerization/crosslinking process was monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in terms of the radiation dose and LC concentration. The conversion of double bonds of the acrylic monomer shows a rapid increase at low dose values followed by a plateau. The transmission vs voltage curves were investigated as a function of wavelength and sample thickness, and show low transmission in the off-state and high transmission in the on-state. The analysis was accomplished by a proper morphology consideration.

Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Polymer network, Acrylate, Liquid crystal, UV irradiation, Electro-optical measurements, Infrared spectroscopy, Morphology, UV-vis spectroscopy.



go to top  Determination of the Heat of Adsorption from Solution from Equilibrium Concentration Measurements as a Function of the Temperature and Comparison with Direct Calorimetric Measurements
        by Guillermo A. Alvarez, Juan C. Moreno, Liliana Giraldo

        Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 115-122


Abstract - A method for the determination of the heat of adsorption from solution of a substance, h°T, P, from measurements of the equilibrium concentration of the substance remaining in solution as a function of the temperature is presented and compared with the direct measurement of the heat of adsorption using a state-of-the art heat conduction microcalorimeter for the system phenol in aqueous solution and an activated carbon surface. Equilibrium considerations are employed similar to those used to calculate the so-called isosteric heat of adsorption from the slope of the equilibrium pressure vs. the temperature at constant adsorption but in a way simpler than this method which requires recording the pressure as a function of the coverage, ξ, at several temperatures while the present method gives directly the heat of adsorption from the single slope of the equilibrium concentration vs. the temperature at constant pressure. The transfer of moles of solute from the solution to the carbon surface obeys Nernst’s distribution law with an equilibrium constant which depends only on the temperature and pressure. Hence, the quantities obtained from the equilibrium condition are standard functions. The values obtained for the heat of adsorption of phenol by this method are typical of those found for mild physical adsorption. Heats of adsorption are important to characterize porous carbon surfaces and for the study of intermolecular interactions in condensed phases.

Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Heat of adsorption from solution; heat conduction microcalorimeter; aqueous-phase adsorption of phenol by active carbon; Nernst’s distribution law; regular solution; intermolecular interactions.



go to top  Numerical Heat and Mass Transfer for Viscous Flow past a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet
         by Kai-Long Hsiao, Guan-Bang Chen

        Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 123-128


Abstract - In this study, an analysis has been performed for heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer flow of a viscous flow past a nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, Ec, Pr, Sc represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, viscous effect, thermal effect and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similar transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem. The result show that the heat transfer effect is good for a higher Pr and the mass transfer effect is good for a higher Sc.

Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Nonlinearly stretching sheet, Heat and mass transfer, finite-difference, Viscous dissipation.



go to top Modeling by a Method for Automating Self Moiré Images for Applications in Three-Dimensional Metrology, Surfaces-2D-3D
       by Mohammedi Ferhat

        Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 129-134


Abstract - The question that dominates and dictates the vision of this work is formed by the low spatial frequencies may appear in the combination of the light distribution of a periodical. The paper describes a method that allows the accurate prediction of the fringe localization in moiré. In the case of objects moving as a whole, moiré can thus as a metrological tool.
We present the analysis of the moiré fringes self of two gratings of identically periods. The following applications are considered: study of mechanical vibrations and deformation, micro geometrical properties of surfaces. Several applications are emphasized: plane, cylindrical and spherical objects. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results

Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Moiré phenomena, Gratings, CCD-camera, Patterns, Projection system.


go to top   On the Inter-Floor Radio Propagation: General UTD Analysis
         by Ivan Marinovic, Igor Zanchi, Zoran Blazevic

          Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 135-142


Abstract - The paper presents results of Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) simulation of inter-floor propagation inside a building. The model of propagation includes three mechanisms of propagation: the transmission through the floors, the diffraction on the windows and the propagation by multiple reflections through vertical apertures inside a building. Each type of mentioned rays is analyzed separately, but the conclusions regarding the path-loss of composite signal may be established based on the presented results. Also, the term of particular decaying constant is introduced.

Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Indoor Inter-Floor Propagation, UTD method, Path-Loss, Decaying Constant.



go to top   A Comprehensive Three Dimensional Dynamic Model of the Human Elbow Joint
         by A. M. El Arabi, M. T. Khaled, A. H. Taher, G. M. Adel

          Vol. 3 n. 2, pp. 143-1148


Abstract - This study introduces a three-dimensional dynamic model of the human elbow joint. In this model the bones and joints of the upper extremity as well as 15 muscles and 4 ligaments crossing the elbow joint were considered. Six equations of motion, with 30 unknowns, were obtained using Newton's 2nd law of motion at elbow joint. These unknowns were the magnitudes and directions of 15 elbow muscle forces, 4 ligament forces, the moment arms of the muscles and ligaments about the elbow and radio-humeral joints, and the contact forces. The position of the bony landmarks and the centers of gravity of the upper limb were recorded in global coordinates with two digital video cameras. The WINanalyze software was used to analyze the motion. The results were fed to the software package, developed by the authors, to calculate the kinematics of points of interest as well as the direction cosines and moment arms of all the muscle and ligaments. A genetic optimization package was used to compute the musculoskeletal forces, utilizing the minimization of the resultant contact force at the elbow region as an objective function.

Copyright © 2009 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords: Elbow Joint; Optimization; EMG; Muscle Forces; Dynamic Model.


Please send any questions about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.it
Copyright © 2005-2014 Praise Worthy Prize