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International Review on Modelling and Simulations  Vol. 3 N. 6---- Part A

International Review on Modelling and Simulations  Vol. 3 N. 6---- Part B



go to top    International Review on Modelling and Simulations (Vol. 3 N. 6)  - December 2010 - Papers (Part A)



go to top    International Review on Modelling and Simulations (Vol. 3 N. 6)  - December 2010 - Papers (Part B)






International Review on Modelling and Simulations - Papers (Part A)


go to top   Design of an Arbitrary Shaped Invisible Cloak Using Coordinate Transformation
         by S. H. Sedighi, M. Khalaj-Amir Hosseini

          Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1167-1171


Abstract - The invisible Cloaks for an arbitrary shape is proposed and designed based on the simple coordinate transformation approach. We first identify the new transformation relation and then extract the required material tensors of the invisible cloak shell. The inhomogeneous anisotropic derived materials deflect waves and guide them around the object and return them to their original trajectory. Finally, the full wave simulations are done to confirm the validity of the design.
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Keywords:  Arbitrary Shape, Coordinate Transformation, Cloak.



go to top   Development Of An Intelligent Load Forecasting Prediction Algorithm
         by Mohd Fauzi Othman, Khalil Mohamad, Saeed M. Badran

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1172-1182


Abstract - Predicting future behavior of a system based on its previous behaviors is one of the essential goals of modern science and it data is quite important in solving both engineering and economic problems. The objective of this paper is to develop prediction algorithms that can predict the time series data with minimum prediction error when compared with other techniques. This paper uses several artificial intelligent techniques that is fuzzy logic, multilayer perceptron neural network and generalized regression neural network (GRNN). Load demand predictions are the case studies in this project. Only short term load forecasting are being considered and two approaches have been undertaken to predict the load demand of 24 hours and 72 hours ahead. The same data are used for all techniques and the summary of their performance are compared and evaluated.
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Keywords:  Load Demand Prediction, Intelligent System.



go to top   Differential Evolution Approach for Optimal Design of Switched Reluctance Machine
         by M.Balaji, Dr.V.Kamaraj

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1183-1188


Abstract - This paper presents Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm based design optimization of Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM).The SRM design is formulated as multivariable constrained optimization problem. The objective functions for obtaining desired design are maximization of average torque and minimization of torque ripple with stator and rotor pole arc as design variables. The optimization procedure is tested on 8/6, four-phase, 5 HP, 1500 rpm SRM.The results are compared and investigated with those obtained from Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique and FEA simulation. The results show that the proposed method is effective and outperforms GA in terms of solution quality, accuracy, constraint handling and computational time.
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Keywords:  Average Torque Genetic Algorithm, Differential Evolution Algorithm, Switched Reluctance Machine, Torque Ripple.



go to top   Design of Static Converter for Electric Traction
         by S. Tounsi, M. Hadj Kacem, R. Néji

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 11189-1195


Abstract - In this paper, we describe a design methodology of a static converter with electromagnetic switches, dedicated to the electric traction. The design gait rests on the development of an analytic model providing the manufactureing datas of this converter. This gait of design take in account the adaptation of this converter, characterized by a low switching frequency to the global system, while inserting a reducer cracterised by a ratio calculated by a manner guaranteeing to the electric vehicle to reach the maximal speed (100 km/h), and to have a good dynamic characteristic. This design approach, takes in account of the interactions between the control strategy and the electric motor design procedure. Finally, the design gait is validated by the finite element method, and the functionality of the global system is verified by simulations of the power train global model bsed on the vectorial control, minimizing the energy consumption of the electric vehicle, while imposing a phase current of phase in phase with the back electromotive force.
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Keywords:  Electric Vehicle, Motor, Converter, Design, Analytic, Finite Element, Electromagnetic Switch.



go to top   Modeling of a Variable Speed Wind Turbine driving PMSG using Hysteresis Band Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
         by F. Kendouli, A.M. Boulahia, K. Nabti, H. Benalla

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1196-1201

Abstract - This paper describes the modeling and control system of a wind turbine for medium power Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). This control allows the synchronous generator to operate at an optimal speed. To show its effectiveness, a mathematical model of a wind energy conversion system is developed. In this paper, a distributed generation based on stand alone wind energy conversion system (WECS) using a variable speed permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is proposed with a hysteresis band Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) rectifier and a battery for storing the wind energy. The topology for the same condition has been demonstrated using MATLAB Simulink based simulations.
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Keywords:  Wind Turbine, Modeling PMSG, Storage, PWM Rectifier, Hysteresis Band Current Controller.



go to top   Multi-physics Modeling of a Linear Tubular Step Actuator
         by Saidi, L. El Amraoui, M. Benrejeb

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1202-1208


Abstract - In this paper is developed a multi-physic model of a linear tubular step actuator, dedicated to the motorization of a syringe pump for real incompressible drug perfusion.
The multi-physic model is composed of several models coupled between them. Each model represents a particular physical phenomenon.
The multi-physics modeling is elaborate via analytical models of electric, mechanical, thermal, magnetic phenomena and load. Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

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Keywords:  Syringe Pump, Perfusion, Real Incompressible Drug, Linear Step Actuator, Modeling Multi-Physics, Dynamic Response.



go to top   Sensorless Control strategy for Wind Energy Conversion System based on Doubly Fed Twin Stator Induction Generator
         by S.Nouali, A.Ouali

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1209-1216


Abstract - In this article we present a sensorless control for Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) based on Doubly Fed Twin Stator Induction Generator (DFTSIG). The aim of this control is to extract the maximum wind power and to control the power generation only by measuring phase voltages and currents. For that, an adaptive observer based on Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) theory is introduced to estimate the rotor speed and position. To impose the maximum point of power MPPT, which depends on the aerodynamic power and the wind speed turbine, an extended Luenberger observer was introduced in cascade with the MRAS observer to estimate the optimal aerodynamic torque. After, an approximation with an Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN) makes it possible to estimate the wind velocity .The latter will be injected in the algorithm control to impose the optimal output power reference, by using an MPPT block based on knowledge of the WECS dynamics and power characteristics .Simulation results demonstrate the sensorless control device excellent performances using Matlab/Simulink.
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Keywords:  Sensorless Control, MPPT, WECS, MRAS Observer, Neuronal Network Observer, Extended Luenberger Observer.



go to top   Water Modeling and Control of PEMFC by Predictive Controller Based on Neural Network
         by Milad Karimi, Alireza Rezazade

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1217-1228


Abstract - The operation of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) greatly depends on water management, Imbalance between production and evaporation rates can result in either flooding of the electrodes or membrane dehydration, both of which severely limit fuel cell performance. In the present study, a mathematical model was developed to evaluate the output voltage of the cell, water content and water distribution through the cell. Since temperature plays a prominent role in water management in the PEMFC, its effect on water content and water distribution in the membrane is completely studied. It is shown that the effect of the temperature with water modeling in cell is in contradiction to it’s effect without modeling the water content. A predictive controller based on the Neural Network is used to control the water content on the cell during its operation by adjusting the relative humidity of inlet hydrogen. Data is obtained from the 1.2kW Ballard_NexaTM Power_Module and simulated by Matlab Simulink 2009.
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Keywords:  PEMFC, Water Management, Neural Network, Predictive Controller.



go to top   Using an Exhaustive-Based Search Algorithm for Selective Harmonic Reduction of Multilevel Inverters
         by Hadi Chahkandi Nejad, Rouzbeh Jahani, Javad Olamaei, Heidar Ali Shayanfar

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1229-1233


Abstract - In this paper, an exhaustive search algorithm optimization technique is applied to multilevel inverter to determine the optimum switching angles for cascaded multilevel inverters for eliminating some higher order harmonics while maintaining the required fundamental voltage. This technique can be applied to the multilevel inverters with any number of levels; for example, the 7-level, 9-level and 11-level inverters, and the optimum switching angles are calculated offline to eliminate the 5th and the 7th harmonics. Then, these angles are used in an experimental setup to validate the results.
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Keywords:  Cascade Multilevel Inverter; Exhaustive Search Algorithm; Selective Harmonic Elimination; Modulation Index.



go to top   Voltage Sag Detection Technique Based on Phase Angle Analysis for PWM-Switched Autotransformer
         by Muhamad Mansor, Nasrudin Abd. Rahim

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1234-1240


Abstract - Voltage sag can cause expensive downtime, making it the focus of considerable research. Many voltage sag detection techniques have been introduced to measure and to detect voltage sags, such as RMS Value Evaluation and Peak Value Evaluation techniques. Most of them require a delay for sag to be detected and compensated, whereas immediate sag detection is vital to improvement of transient performance. This paper presents a new voltage-sag detection technique that is based on phase-angle analysis, capable to detect and to compensate sag the moment it occurs. Its effectiveness and capability had been verified through a MATLAB/Simulink simulation. A study on existing techniques, i.e., RMS Value Evaluation and Peak Value Evaluation, is included as comparison with the proposed technique.
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Keywords:  Voltage Sag, Voltage Sag Detection, Voltage Sag Compensator.



go to top   State Space Analysis for Internal Nonlinearities and Noise Modeling of a Microwave MESFET Amplifier
         by Arash Kiyoumarsi, Payman Moallem, Ali Safabakhsh, Sadegh Masjoodi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1241-1248


Abstract - State space analysis can be successfully used to analyze the amplifier, load and the feed back circuits when they are all connected to each other. The main advantages of state space analysis of feedback amplifiers are the possibility of discussion of internal and structural nonlinearities and eigenvalue analysis of the whole amplifier. In this paper, state space analysis of a microwave amplifier is completely discussed. In this model, the effects of internal noise both in gate to source and drain to source junctions, are briefly taken into account .The transfer functions as well as input and output driving impedances of the amplifier are determined using proper state variables. This analysis will be valid when the network is in a linear region.
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Keywords:  MESFET Amplifier, State Space Analysis, Nonlinearity, Noise Modeling.



go to top   Energy Transmission via an Inductive Link in an Implantable System through Macromodel
         by M. Chaoui, R. Perdriau, H. Ghariani, M. Lahiani

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1249-1255


Abstract - This article presents a macromodel-based electrical simulation model of a skin-implantable system, capable of transmitting RF power and data through an inductive link. This model makes it possible to assess the efficiency of energy transmission as a function of lateral and longitudinal displacements between the external coil (transmitter) and the implanted coil (receiver). This model must describe the behaviour of the mutual inductance in relation to lateral and longitudinal displacements. For that, a behavioural modelling was made on the basis of the mathematical equation of the mutual inductance. A polynomial interpolation of order four of this equation was established to lead to the electric model in the form of a sub circuit. This modelling made it possible to study and to simulate the efficiency and the impedance brought back to the entry of the inductive link in relation to lateral and longitudinal displacements.The power amplifier itself is a class E amplifier optimized in both output voltage and efficiency, and bears an excellent tolerance to displacements.
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Keywords:  Inductive Link, RF, Class E Amplifier, Modeling, Rectifier.



go to top   Effect of Changes in the Shape of Input Wave to Ionization of the Horizontal Grounding - Computer Model Analysis
         by Rasim Gačanović, Hamid Zildžo, Halid Matoruga

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1256-1260


Abstract - The paper gives an overview of some features of the analytical view of lightning current wave shape. Also presented are original recordings of form and value of real lightning. In addition, given the basic principles of modeling soil ionization, as well as data on a computer model to simulate the ionization - ION.GR. The main goal is to analyze the impact of changes in parameters of input wave on the ionization of the simple horizontal ground electrode. Thus, altered the form and frequency of input wave of strikes in the concerned electrode. Then, are presented and analyzed responses obtained in the model ION.GR. The above model is suitable for analyzing grounding of small objects exposed to lightning.
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Keywords:  3D Lightning Surge, Wave Shape, Rise Time, Decline Time, Wave Front, Wave Frequency, Ionization of Soil, a Short Strip Grounding, Electromagnetic Transients, Frequency Dependence, Voltages, Grounding, Atmospheric Discharge, Numerical Methods.



go to top   The Calculation of Grounding Systems using 3D Macro Finite Element Method
         by Halid Matoruga Hamid Zildžo, Rasim Gačanović

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1261-1265


Abstract - Designing and optimizing the geometry of grounding systems in large substation should be focus enormous attention: First, because of the huge economic savings on the material and the second reason is to reduce and limit dangerous step voltages, touch voltages and floating potentials on passive electrodes (substation fences or pipelines). Previous calculations of grounding systems are mainly based on Indirect boundary element Method and so-called horizontal two-layer soil under the substation. In reality, ground can be both horizontally and vertically layered. This paper contains a numerical model for calculation of grounding systems with 3D Macro Finite Element Method. This method is very suitable for solving problems with the vertically or horizontally layered of soil.
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Keywords:  3D Macro Finite Element Method, Galerkin Method of Weighted Residuals, Grounding System, the Potential of the Earth's Surface, Step Voltage, Touch Voltage, Floating Potential.



go to top   Calculation Dangerous Potential in the Pipeline of Large Size in the Vicinity of Grounding Systems with Boundary Element Method
         by Hamid Zildžo, Rasim Gačanović, Halid Matoruga

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1266-1272


Abstract - This paper presents a procedure for calculation of induced dangerous potential of the pipeline located near the substation grounding system at the time of current flow through the earth fault segments in the ground. Since the pipeline (eg, Water pipe line) is connected to the main substation grounding, then it behaves as a passive electrode, and to induce her floating potential. The method of boundary elements was applied. Segments of horizontal and vertical strips grounding probe the ground substations are discretized with 1D line boundary elements and boundary surface pipeline is discretized with 2D elements.
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Keywords:  Boundary Element Methods, Method of Collocation to Point, Grounding Substation, Ground Potential Rise (GPR), Step Voltage, Touch Voltage, Floating Potential.



go to top   Modelling the Channel Transfer Function of the Vehicle Power Line Channel
         by M. Fattah, R. Ouremchi, M. El Bekkali, S. Mazer

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1273-1280


Abstract - This paper presents the modeling of the propagation channel for broadband transmissions from a transfer function point in-vehicle environment. Nowadays, electronics spreads in the automobile field thanks to the introduction of networks embedded into the vehicles. In order to limit the number of new cables for questions of costs, weight and especially reliability, a solution consists in transmitting information on the network of energy of the vehicles by using the techniques of power line communication (PLC). This approach based on Multiconductor Transmission Line is first of all considered to calculate the transfer function of the channel between two points of the car DC line. Experimental results are presented and demonstrate excellent agreement with the simulation.
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Keywords:  Channel Characteristics, Channel Modeling, Transfer Function, Power Line Communication, Vehicle Network.



go to top   Modeling and Simulation of Traffic in High Speed Networks based MMPP
         by Afshin Shaabany, Fatemeh Jamshidi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1281-1288


Abstract - One of the non-self-similar models which is capable of modeling self-similar traffic in networks and always attracts attention of researches is MMPP process. In other words, this model can produce bur sty traffics in data and video networks. In this paper, accuracy and preciseness of adapting MMPP on voice, data and video traffics are studied and the efficiency of input process of MMPP into high speed networks is reviewed based on queue model of MMPP/D/1. Then by means of advanced and MMPP-based algorithms such as LAMBDA, data and video fractal traffics are synthesized based on original trace and their efficiency are compared. We correct the algorithms in a manner that the coordination impreciseness resulted by the change in parameters of self-similar traffic, in particular, HURST parameter fades out. Our strategy for correcting the above algorithm is as follows: Whereas the number of MMPP states in adjustment process is low, we may not be able to cover all original packet trace. Therefore, if the number of MMPP states increases, we can solve the efficiency problems.
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Keywords:  LAMBDA, MMPP Process, HURST Parameter, Traffic in High Speed Networks.



go to top   Flexible Pavement Design: Comparative Study Between Japan and Morocco
         by Ismail Yasso, Kamal Gueraoui, Abdelmajid Niazi, Gamal, Zeggwagh

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1289-1297


Abstract - This article is in the context of the dimensioning methods of the flexible pavement. It concentrates on the problems of the taking into account of the loads of traffic according to the probabilistic parameters of the temperature, particularly for the analytical or incremental methods.
After having presented the method of characterization of the bitumen binders according to their viscoelastic behavior to Morocco and Japan and the factors influencing the bearing capacity between these two countries. We are interested this time in dimensioning of a Moroccan flexible pavement with the incremental method of Japan.
In these last, the deformations due to the loads of traffic, given on the basis of linear elastic modeling of the roadways (model of Burmister), are used for the estimate of the lifespan of the roadway.
The real loads of traffic of the roadways are diversified of an area with another, as well on the level of their intensity as of their mode of application. It is through this vision of globalization that a comparison between the various models of dimensioning in particular between Morocco and Japan is carried out.
Morocco although with these great geographical extents is a country which strongly depends on the climatic risks and although since a certain number of years of vast construction projects of new roadways and handing-over on level of the old roads are launched; one of the disadvantages major of this vast policy is the cost.
The comparison compared to Japan seems interesting in measurement or although this country is classified among most advanced economically world, the problems are much more important in measurement or the materials rare on the one hand and are very regulated compared to the environmental laws on the other hand.
Thus, it will be a question of presenting the philosophy of Japanese design pavements.
Once this solved stage, it will be necessary to adapt methodology to the Moroccan model (drawn from the Moroccan catalog of pavement design) and to check the state of the constraints and deformations under imposed requests.
Conclusions and prospects compared to the pavement design could be brought thereafter in order to improve the current methods of pavement design in Morocco.

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Keywords:  Asphalt Pavement, Visco Elastic Property, And Fatigue Life, Law Of Behaviour, Rutting, Thermal Stress, And Load of Traffic.



go to top   Elastic Link Robot Dynamics Modelling based on Beam Theories
         by Malik Loudini

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1298-1307


Abstract - In this paper, comprehensive dynamic modeling of elastic link robotic manipulators is investigated based on beam theories. First, the emphasis is essentially set on a detailed description of the different steps, allowing the obtaining of accurate and complete governing equations of the transversely vibrating motion of an actuated lightweight elastic link robot arm carrying a payload at its free end-point. The development is based on the general Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) with inclusion of important damping mechanisms. As a contribution, a new closed form dynamic model of a planar single link elastic manipulator considered as a Rayleigh beam (RB) with internal structural viscoelasticity is then proposed.
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Keywords:  Robot Manipulator, Elastic Link, Damping, Timoshenko Beam Theory, Rayleigh Beam, Lagrange, Assumed Modes Method.



go to top   A Hybrid Fuzzy-based Robust Controller for Pneumatically Actuated Micro Robot
         by Y. Sabzehmeidani , M. Mailah, M. Hussein, E. Gatavi, M.Z. Md Zain

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1308-1316


Abstract - The paper focuses on the implementation of a hybrid control technique applied to a pneumatically actuated micro robot which is modelled and simulated to operate in a constrained environment for an in-pipe application. A mathematical model that represents the dynamic characteristics of micro robot is first derived and later the dynamic response of the robot system subjected to different input excitations rigorously investigated. Three different types of control algorithms are designed and integrated into this system via a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, sliding mode controller (SMC) and active force control (AFC) method. This hybrid scheme is to be known as AFC+SMC+PID and its primary objective is to ensure accurate and robust trajectory tracking control of the micro robot system is achieved. The performance of the control system under different types of disturbances is evaluated through a simulation study. The obtained results clearly demonstrate an effective trajectory tracking capability of the worm-like micro robot in spite of the negative effects of the external disturbances.
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Keywords:  Active Force Control, Sliding Mode Control, PID Controller, Fuzzy Logic, Micro Robot, Robust Tracking.



go to top   Numerical and theoretical modelling of unsteady flows for incompressible fluid in rigid conducts. Application to molten polymers flow
         by M. Driouich, K. Gueraoui, Y. M. Haddad, M. Sammouda, A. El Hammoumi, M. Kerroum, M. Taibi, O. Fassi Fehri

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1317-1323


Abstract - The main objective of this work is to establish a numerical code for studying the flow of molten polymers in rigid pipes. Using an iterative numerical method based on finite differences, we determine the profiles of the fluid velocity, the temperature and the apparent viscosity of the fluid. The numerical code presented can also be applied to other industrial applications.
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Keywords:  molten polymers, rigid conduct, finite differences, incompressible fluid.



go to top   Determination of Generators Similarity Criterion for Power System Aggregation Using K-Means Clustering Method
         by Moez Davodi, Ehsan Reihani, Mehdi Davodi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1324-1329


Abstract - This paper describes an improved technique for identification of coherent generators. In this method, the coherent generators are identified using a pattern recognition approach called K-Means clustering method. Based on the definition of coherency and hard clustering, similarity measures of swing curves of rotor angles of generators in the network are obtained. Coherency measure of the generators in coherent groups in electrical networks is also shown by bar diagram. One of the advantages of this method is the capability of separating of the network into arbitrary number of groups. In each separation, the accuracy of number of coherent groups and dynamic equivalences are investigated. After the separating the network into several groups, the generators in each group are aggregated into one equivalent generator. The proposed method is simulated on 39-bus, 10 generators New England test system. The obtained results show that the proposed method has a high accuracy in identification and aggregation of the coherent generators.
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Keywords:  Cluster analysis, Coherent generators, Coherency, Criterion, Dynamic behaviors, Generator aggregation, K-Means clustering, Power System, Similarity matrix.



go to top   Image processing function with Measurement of the spinal column by interferometry laser experimental biomedical with Observations
         by Mohammedi Ferhat, Bensaada Said, Zergui Belgacem

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1330-1334


Abstract - This paper evaluates and compares the method studied the spinal column in biomechanics. We present a mathematical analysis of moiré phenomena for shape recognition. The illuminating field is spatially partially coherent and homogeneous. We show, in this case the existing of critical coherence field structure which reduces the visibility of the fringes. Several applications are emphasized; Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.
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Keywords:  Scoliosis, Images, Simulation, Topography.



International Review on Modelling and Simulations - Papers (Part B)


go to top   Performance of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angles in Perlis, Northern Malaysia
         by I. Daut, M. Irwanto, M. Ezzani, M. I. Yusoff

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1335-1343

Abstract - This paper presents a calculation of the tilt angles and the solar irradiance on PV module in Perlis, Nortern Malaysia. A mathematical modeling is used to calculate the tilt angles and the solar irradiance, which depend on latitude and day number. The optimum tilt angle of PV module was determined by searching a yearly maximum total and average solar irradiance. The tilt angles of PV module in Perlis, Northern Malaysia are -17.160 to 29.740. For the state of Perlis, Northern Malaysia (has latitude 6.290 N) is recommended that the optimum tilt angle of the PV module from the horizontal be put equal to 6.840 (an angle of the latitude of the location +0.550). The best performance of PV module is reached when the tilt angle is 6.840.
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Keywords:  Solar Irradiance; Optimum Tilt Angle; Performance Of PV Module.



go to top   Islanding Detection Based on Voltage and Current THD and ROCOF Method
         by B.Sobhani, N.Ghadimi, H.Kazemi Kargar, R.Ghadimi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1344-1349


Abstract - Nowadays Renewable energies in the world take special place for them, and many distributed generations (DGs) in the power system utilize these types of energy sources. Due to the DGs advantages, including using of Renewable Energy which not polluting environment and has endless nature, the use of these resources to produce electrical energy in the world are increasing. One problem with such generators is an unwanted Islanding phenomenon. This paper introduces a passive method for detection of island condition in eclectically-interfaced distributed resource units at the distribution voltage level. This method based on composed of current and voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF). In order to detection, out put current of DG and load voltage and frequency of load voltage are measuring. In connected mode THD and ROCOF almost have zero amounts but when islanding is occurred THD and ROCOF have been changing. In this paper too have been shown that the proposed method don’t encroach from IEEE1547 standard. And the proposed method detected island mode lesser from 2 second. This profess has been shown by simulation in MATLAB software.
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Keywords:  Anti-Island; THD; Rate of Change of Frequency; Distributed Generations.



go to top   Modelling, Control Strategy of DFIG in a Wind Energy System and Feasibility Study of a Wind Farm in Morocco
         by H. Faida, J. Saadi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1350-1362


Abstract - In this work, our goal in the first time is to control a generator in a wind system to improve its performance. Thus, we chose to model the DFIG for its performance in wind systems, we chose the type of command to implement it and finally the block diagram of the system to regulate. Indeed, the control strategy chosen for the DFIG is a vector control in an active power and reactive stator. The equation, the choice of Landmark two-phase and simplifications necessary for the synthesis of controllers is presented. And a simulation in MATLAB 7 is made in this sense. Secondly, this work is the result of a feasibility study project of electricity generation through wind turbines (WTG). In fact, we analyzed the wind data collected during one year at a site in Morocco. We assessed all graphs that are the basis for achieving the final goal: namely the potential wind site, the Weibull distribution of wind frequencies, analysis of calm wind and diurnal variation, the prediction of energy based on a judicious choice of the machine and the determination of wind direction for implementation of wind turbines. Subsequently, we studied the impact of wind integration on the grid at the point of common coupling, and we proposed an industrial solution for remote management to optimize the exploitation of the production of this wind farm.
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Keywords:  Modelling, Control Strategy of DFIG, Wind Data, Potential Wind, Wind Park, Aero Generators, Impact of Wind Integration on the Grid, Harmonics, Telemanagement.



go to top   Comparative Study of Series and Parallel configurations of Solar PV Array under Partial Shaded Conditions
         by R.Ramaprabha, Dr.B.L.Mathur

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1363-1371


Abstract - In this paper, the comparative study of series and parallel solar photovoltaic (SPV) array configurations is carried out to analyze their performance under different shaded working conditions. The different cases of partial shade of the panels have been analyzed. This study has been carried out from the improved model for the simulation work. A novel electronic load method to quickly draw the characteristics and recording the result has been proposed in this paper to validate the developed model. The results have been obtained by writing the mathematical equations in MATLAB- M file. Through M-file programming increased number of modules can be easily studied under different shading patterns. This approach can be extended for finding the different array configurations to attain the higher electrical energy production.
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Keywords:  Solar PV Array, Improved Model, Partial Shading, Series Configuration, Parallel Configuration, Electronic Load.



go to top   Evaluation of Lightning Performance of Overhead Transmission Line Based on 132 kV Double Circuit Tower Structures
         by D. Caulker, H. Ahmad, Z. Abdul-Malek

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1372-1381


Abstract - Analysis of the performance of an overhead transmission line has been performed using IEEE Flash version 1.81 to calculate the backflashover rate performance of a 132 kV transmission line of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) in Malaysia with respect to variations in the tower footing resistance, tower structures, and length of span of the towers. The study was carried out using the 132 kV structural design, conductor, shield wire(type, area, etc)geometrical position of conductors, insulation string, numbers, length, tower footing resistance and the keraunic level along the lines(ground flash densities and thunderstorm days) provided by the Malaysian Meteorological Department. A zero degree shielding angle for the shield wires was used to calculate the backflashover rate (BFR) and the shielding failure rate (SFR). Simulation results indicate that the variation of the tower footing resistance (TFR) from 1 to 25 ohms results in a corresponding increase in the total flashover rates. Sensitivity analyses were conducted due to the uncertain values of the TFR along the line route. Span length of 365 m between the towers shows higher flashover rate in comparison to the 300 m span of conical structure with respect to variations of the TFR height and tower structures.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Shielding Failure, Backflashover Rate, Transmission Line, Tower Footing Resistance, Ground Flash Density, Span.



go to top   Reactive Power Compensation and Power Factor Correction Using Fuzzy Logic Based SVC
         by Mehdi Safaeian, Mehdi Abapoor

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1382-1387


Abstract - This paper presents an application of fuzzy control to determine the control signal of static var compensator (SVC) for reactive power compensation and power factor correction. Input signals for the FLC are chosen as load reactive power and initial firing angle of thyristors. The control signal is calculated using fuzzy membership functions. The effectiveness and feasibility of the TSK (Takagi-Sugeno-Kang) and mamdani type fuzzy controllers for thyristors firing control in SVC is compared. Effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by simulation studies on a single machine infinite bus system. Results obtained show improvement in the overall system characteristics using the proposed adaptive fuzzy logic SVC controller.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Reactive Power, Fuzzy, SVC.



go to top   Effect of Using Fault Current Limiter on Power Quality Improvement
         by H. Morshedi, A. Ghorbani, M. Abapoor

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1388-1393


Abstract - In this paper a resonant type fault current limiter (FCL) is presented. During normal operation of system, the resonant branches are short circuited and there is not any voltage drop on FCL. In this way, in normal system operation case, the FCL have almost any effect on load operation. After a short time of fault occurring, the control circuit triggers two anti-parallel thyristors and a resistor conducts fault current and limits it. So, in this case FCL have high equivalent resistance that it can limit the fault current. The magnitude of equivalent resistance and also the magnitude of fault current depend on the resistance magnitude. By using EMTDC software we carried out analysis of the voltage and current waveforms for fault conditions. Analytical analysis and designing procedure are presented.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Resonant Type Fault Current Limiter, Power Quality, Bypass Resistance, Fault Analysis.



go to top   Optimal Bidding Strategy in Electricity Markets by Considering Emission Constraints Using Simulated Annealing Algorithm and Comparison with other Heuristic Methods
         by Ali Reza Shafighi Malekshah, Mojtaba Mahvy, Rouzbeh Jahani, Heidar Ali Shayanfar

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1394-1398


Abstract - This study represents an optimal strategy for bidding in power markets which includes Environmental Penalties using agent-based modeling. Environmental penalties are considered for fossil-fueled power plants due to CO2, NO2,…emissions. The total emission of these pollutants can be expressed as sum of a quadratic and an exponential function. It has been assumed demand is inelastic, and then the reward of each player (Gen-Co) is optimized. Each player has three decision variables and bids to market through gaming them. The method used for optimize is Simulated Annealing (SA) that applies to optimization the multi variable functions. The results obtained through SA, are compared with results of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm and represented 14.6% and 34.4% improvement in total reward of the market and emission respectively.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Simulated Annealing (SA) Algorithm; Power market; Bidding strategy; Environmental penalties; Emission; Agent-based.



go to top   Optimal Allocation of FACTS Devices for Secure Clearing of Reactive Power Market in Deregulated Power Systems
         by H. Morshedi, A. Ghorbani, M. Abapoor

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1399-1409


Abstract - A day-ahead reactive power market which is cleared in the form of multiobjective context utilize minimization of Total Payment Function (TPF) of generators, representing the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation or minimization of real power loss, voltage security margin, overload index, and also voltage drop index. In this paper a day-ahead reactive power market proposes which considers system security aspects in the clearing of reactive power market with incorporating Static Var Compensator (SVC) as a one of market participants. Reactive power cost and security indices analysis are integrated using an optimal power flow formulation, which is solved using nsga-II program to choose the best compromise solution according to the specific preference among various non-dominated (pareto optimal) solutions. The proposed methodology is tested on the IEEE 30bus test system. Simulation results show that the security indices and TPF is improved with optimally placing SVC.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Reactive Power, Power Market, FACTS Devices.



go to top   Dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control Strategies for 2 MW Wind Generating Systems
         by L. Mihet-Popa, V. Groza

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1410-1418


Abstract - This paper gives an overview of the control strategies for large wind turbines using induction generators. Also, the paper describes dynamic modeling and simulation results of a two power generating systems: active-stall constant-speed wind turbine with cage-rotor induction machine connected to the grid through a soft-starter and a pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine using wound-rotor induction machine with the stator windings directly connected to the grid and with the rotor windings connected to a back-to-back partial scale power converter. To evaluate the performance for both wind turbine concepts, a set of simulations are performed for wind gusts at an average wind speed higher than the rated value. The models are implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT Power Factory, which provides an extensive library for grid components and a dynamic simulation language for modeling of each wind turbine component.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Active Stall Control, Cage-Rotor & Doubly-Fed Induction Machine, Pitch Angle Control, Rotor Efficiency, Wind Gusts, Wind Turbines.



go to top   Developed Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm on Power System Stabilizer
         by M. Khaleghi, M. Mohammadian, M. Farsangi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1419-1426


Abstract - This paper investigates the ability of improved version of Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm, namely SPEA2, as a multi-objective algorithm to design two power system stabilizers (PSSs) coordinately for a multi-machine power system to damp the inter-area oscillation. Based on proposed methods, the parameters of the PSSs are coordinately determined by SPEA2 using two eigenvalue-based objective functions. The numerical results are presented on a 2-area 4-machines system to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method and the results of SPEA2 have been confirmed and compared with Real Genetic Algorithm (RGA) and Real Immune Algorithm (RIA) as single-objective Algorithms. The simulation studies show that the proposed controller performs better than RGA and RIA in finding the solution.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization, Real Immune Algorithm, Low-Frequency Oscillations, PSS.



go to top   Determination and Allocation of Reactive Power Cost using Developed Tracing Method
         by Seyed Mohammad Hussein Nabavi, Somayeh Hajforoosh, Sajad Hajforosh, Ahmad Karimi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1427-1433


Abstract - Conventional methods of determining and allocating of reactive power costs which are based on power factor, do not provide an accurate method to consumers reactive power pricing. While support for ensuring proper and continuous reactive power is needed to generate sufficient incentives to generate reactive power. To motivate participates, it is needed to create an economic structure of reactive power. In this paper, a method for determining the cost of reactive power is presented considering direct and indirect costs in generating and transmission. The developed tracing method for allocating reactive power cost is introduced. Simulation results in the IEEE 30-bus test system are considered to test and validate the proposed method. The methodologies, results and discussion presented in this paper show that the presented method is practical and has reasonable speed for determination and allocating reactive power cost.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Reactive Power, Tracing Method, Opportunity Cost.



go to top   Modeling and Application of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) Evaluating Shunt and Series Inverters Loading
         by M. Siahi, M. Hoseinpour, M. Najafi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1434-1440


Abstract - As much as nonlinear loads and power electronics devices are more applied in power distribution systems, the importance of power quality increases. In this paper, unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is designed and simulated by synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed system is comprised of series and shunt inverters which can compensate the sag, swell and unbalance voltage, harmonics and also the reactive power. PI controller is used to stabilize DC link voltage and balance the active power between the shunt and series inverters. The capacity of series and shunt inverters is calculated through loading calculations of these inverters applying phasor diagram to increase the design accuracy. The results of simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK software show that the system operates correctly.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Active Power Filter, Power Quality, Unified Power Quality Conditioner, Synchronous Reference Frame Theory, Inverter Loading.



go to top   Applying Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Distortion Optimization and Fault Current Limitation
         by S.Sajedi, A. Pirayesh, B.Mozafari, S.Torabzad

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1441-1446


Abstract - Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is mainly applied to optimize voltage quality and compensating voltage sag and swell. In this paper, DVR application with new control method is proposed for downstream fault current reduction in addition to voltage distortion compensation. The control system recognizes fault occurrence by monitoring load current and determines if DVR should operate in fault current reduction mode or compensation mode. As fault occurs, the fault current is reduced by adding an additional control function to the overall controlling unit. The control strategy change operates in a way that the DVR functions as a great inductor during the fault. As fault is ride-through, the control unit returns DVR to its normal operation mode by calculating the load voltage. The proposed topology is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and the results well shows the proper performance of the system under voltage distortion and fault occurrence conditions.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Dynamic Voltage Restorer, Voltage Distortion, Virtual Impedance, Fault Current.



go to top   Using Genetic Algorithm for Social Welfare Maximization in Deregulated Power Markets by Optimal Locating and Sizing of TCSC
         by Seyed Mohammad Hossein Nabavi, Somayeh Hajforoosh, Sajad Hajforosh, Ahmad Karimi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1447-1453


Abstract - Series FACTS devices such as TCSC, with its ability to directly control the power flow can be very effective to improve the operation of transmission network. In this paper, corrective solution for congestion management by using TCSC has been reviewed. A novel genetic algorithm for finding the optimal location and size of this device was proposed for congestion management with the aim of increasing social welfare while cost of TCSC was incorporated. The simulation results were successfully tested on IEEE 14-bus system. Analyzing the results with and without FACTS devices confirms that these devices are appropriate for long time congestion management.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Congestion management, deregulated power market, genetic algorithm, social welfare, TCSC, optimal power flow.



go to top   Reactive Power Cost Allocation in Re-Structured Electric Power Environment
         by Seyed Mohammad Hossein Nabavi, Somayeh Hajforoosh, Sajad Hajforosh, Ahmad Karimi

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1454-1460


Abstract - In a non competitive environment usually a part of the cost of reactive power is considered in the cost of active power and some parts are considered as penalties in the coefficient of load power. While in the competitive environment for a proper function of the system, this part of ancillary services must be purchased through a contract or suggested cost. Therefore its cost must be paid in a fair price by user. In addition in the market of reactive power much attention is paid to the fair allocation of cost for customers. In this paper a new method is provided for allocation of cost for customers in a competitive environment. One of the most important characteristics of this method is calculation of the load shares in reactive losses of lines based on theory of proportional share in which active and reactive losses of the line is considered which is the result of transmission of reactive power to loads. In other words in the suggested method a part of line losses which is related to lines which absorb all entry reactive powers resulting from transmission of reactive power to loads. Also in this method the cooperation share of the system in supplying the reactive power separates from share of source. Therefore fair cost allocation between customers will occur.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Competitive environment, reactive market, cost allocation, reactive power tracing, proportional share rule.



go to top   Verification of a Novel Proposed Control System for DVR to Correct the Voltage Sag
         by A. D. Falehi, M. Rostami

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1461-1467


Abstract - In this paper, voltage sag is compensated by DVR (Dynamic Voltage Restorer) in distribution system. This device is placed between sensitive load and supply to inject voltage in series in order to correct the voltage sag. Subsequently, voltage sag compensation techniques in distribution system are explained in details. Due to the restriction of storage energy in DVR's capacitors, minimization of active power injection by DVR is essential. Thus, minimum active power injection method applied to compensate voltage sag (balance & unbalance). Then a new control system for DVR based on minimum injection active power method is described. Finally, voltage sag correction by proposed control system is studied and evaluated in spite of variation in load power factor.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Power Quality, Voltage Sag, DVR, System Control, Control Strategy, Compensation.



go to top   MPP Tracker of a PV System using Sliding Mode Control with Minimum Transient Response
         by M. I. Arteaga Orozco, J. R. Vázquez, P. Salmerón

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1468-1475


Abstract - This paper presents an efficient strategy control to maximize the power flow from a photovoltaic array to a stand-alone AC load. The photovoltaic power interface circuit incorporates a buck-boost converter and a full-bridge inverter. The buck-boost operates at high switching frequency and the full-bridge inverter operates at low frequency of 50 Hertz to make the output voltage a sine wave. The power conditioning system’s control assures Maximum Power Tracking (MPPT) optimized the photovoltaic energy extraction and improves output voltage regulation. To maximize the steady-state input-output power transfer ratio a sliding mode control is proposed permitting a direct control of DC/DC converter. The stability as well as the robustness of the system is addressed and a control diagram is present. The efficiency of the proposed approach is verified through MATLAB simulations.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Photovoltaic system, buck-boost converter, sliding mode control, maximum power point tracking.



go to top   Comparison of Novel Heuristic Technique and Other Evolutionary Methods for Optimal Unit Commitment of Power System
         by Hadi Chahkandi Nejad, Rouzbeh Jahani, Heidar Ali Shayanfar, Javad Olamaei

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1476-1482


Abstract - The solution of the unit commitment problem (UCP) is a complex optimization problem. The exact solution of the UCP can he obtained by a complete enumeration of all feasible combinations of generating units, which could be a huge number. The objective is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal generating unit commitment in the power system for the next hours. This paper presents a Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (MSFLA) to solve optimal Unit Commitment Problem (UCP). The MSFLA is applied to the widely used ten-unit test system and its multiples (10-100). Comparing our results with those of many UC solving methods demonstrate that not only the MSFLA procedure consider is the constraints very well, but also has some advantages, such as good convergence, fast calculating speed and high precision.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (MSFLA); Power System; Unit Commitment Problem (UCP); System Constraints.



go to top   Using EMTP-TACS in Teaching Modeling of Arcing Fault in Power Transmission Line to Senior Undergraduate Students
         by J. Moshtagh, M. Jannati, H.R. Baghaee

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1483-1491


Abstract - Modeling of transient states is one of the important part of power system analysis. Also, the EMTP/ATP is the standard software widely used universally accepted program by the electrical engineers for digital simulation of Electromagnetic Transient phenomena, as well as electromechanically behaviors of electrical power systems. In this paper, a new method has been introduced to teach the Ms Students of electrical engineering as a part of power system transient course. Simulation of fault arc by EMTP/ATP has been presented in order to teach the principles of fault arc modeling in power systems and to analyze the simulation results of transient states. As the first part of this paper, the fault arc model in power systems and its distinction in TACS has been clarified. At the second part, the step by step simulation of arc model in TACS has been presented. The effectiveness of this method has been shown in several semesters with more than 20 students and it can improve the understanding of TACS capabilities and fault arc model.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Fault Arc, Power System Transient, Power Transmission Lines.



go to top   Genetic Algorithm-Based Optimal Location of TCSC and SSSC in the Power System Network
         by M. Karami, N. Mariun, M. Z. A. Ab Kadir

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1492-1500


Abstract - FACTS controllers are based on power electronics technology. They are able to control three main parameters of transmission line such as voltage magnitude, voltage angle and line impedance. Different types of FACTS devices and their various locations in the power system have different effects. In this paper, a practical, accurate and famous heuristic method in engineering science known as genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find the optimal location of FACTS devices and their appropriate size and setting is presented. This method is employed to maximize distance to collapse point of power system and to reduce total active power loss. The continuation power flow (CPF) method is operated to identify the collapse point and critical situation of system. Two types of FACTS devices considered in this study are Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) and Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC). Modeling and simulation are performed on IEEE 14, 57 and 118 bus test system. The acquired results clearly display the effectiveness of this study to find the best location, appropriate size and setting of FACTS devices to achieve mentioned objectives. Furthermore, the results show the effect and capability of FACTS devices to modify different parameters of power system.
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  TCSC, SSSC, Voltage Collapse, Continuation Power Flow Analysis, Genetic Algorithm.



go to top   Reactive Power Pricing Emphasizing on Voltage Stability
         by B. Noshad, M. S. Javadi, M. Joorabian, M. Goodarzi, A. Javadinasab

         Vol. 3. n. 6, pp. 1501-1508


Abstract - In modern power systems, commitment of the generation units based on economical principles of market is considered as an important base, so in these competitive market, making a fair evaluation method can play an important role in returning the costs to the Genco’s. Because securing the reactive power and controlling the voltage in power system to increase the safety and security of the system and to improve the quality of the real power is very important and transferring both the active and reactive power is impossible without controlling the voltage and securing the reactive power. This paper addresses the problem of reactive power procurement by an independent system operator (ISO) in deregulated electricity markets. A reactive bid structure is proposed in the context of a reactive power market. Based on the reactive power price offers and technical constraints involved in reactive power planning, a two-tier approach is developed to determine the most beneficial reactive power contracts for the ISO. The reactive capability of a generator and therefore the opportunity costs in providing reactive power is also considered. This article will discuss the evaluation of reactive power and making competitive markets by cooperation of all reactive power compensators. The IEEE RTS-24 BUS test system is used to evaluating the proposed method. These tests serve to demonstrate computational results of proposed method with electrical distance method and traditionally optimal power flow (OPF).
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved


Keywords:  Ancillary Services, Independent System Operator, Reactive Power Electricity Markets.

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