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International Review of
Mechanical Engineering
(IREME)
July 2013
(Vol. 7 N. 5)








    Performance Study of Reference Height Control Algorithm for Tripod Hopping Robot

    by A. M. Kassim, T. Yasuno, N. Abas, M. S. M. Aras, M. Z. A. Rashid

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 784-789

     

    Abstract - Central Pattern Generator (CPG) algorithm enables to produce rhythmic patterned outputs where this neural networks underlie the production of most rhythmic motor patterns. In this paper, the generation of vertical jumping motion for tripod hopping robot by applying the Central Pattern Generator networks with reference height control algorithm in order to achieve reference height for each leg of tripod hopping robot is discussed. The proposed algorithm is designed using MATLAB/ Simulink which is consisted of maximum height detector, PI controller in the system of Central Pattern Generator (CPG). By using the proposed algorithm, the developed tripod hopping robot can achieve the reference height and maintain the hopping motion respectively. As the result, the effectiveness of proposed reference height control algorithm in order to achieve the reference height is confirmed.

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    Keywords: Tripod Hopping Robot, Reference Height Control Algorithm, Central Pattern Generator.

     

    UTeM`s Amphibious Hybrid Vehicle: Development of Hybrid Electric Propulsion System

    by Muhammad Zahir Hassan, Amjad Saddar Md Isa, Syahibudil Ikhwan Abdul Kudus, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul Manaf

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 790-794

     

    Abstract - This paper presents the preliminary development of hybrid electric propulsion system for amphibious hybrid vehicle (AHV). AHV is developed as a transportation vehicle that can operate both on land and water to be used by the rescue team in rescue operations. AHV is driven by motor electric on the land, while on the water, AHV is propelled by the internal combustion engine (ICE). At the same time, ICE is used as generator to generate the electricity to recharge the battery pack. The main factors that need to be considered in order to develop a hybrid electric propulsion system is the power required by batteries to transmit to the motor electric to move the vehicle. An optimum hybrid electric propulsion system should have minimum fuel consumption, simple to develop and high reliability. Matlab Simulink Analysis based on the mathematical modelling is conducted to determine the power required before the fabrication take place. The design of hybrid electric propulsion is then fabricated by combination of ICE and electric motor. Finally experimental analysis is conducted to determine its reliability and durability.

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    Keywords: Hybrid Electric Propulsion System, Amphibious Hybrid Vehicle.

     

    Motorcycle Handlebar Dynamic Response: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation

    by D. De Falco, G. Di Massa, S. Pagano, S. Strano

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 795-801

     

    Abstract - Motorcycle driver interacts with the vehicle through the hands, feet and buttocks. Through these parts of the body, the driver perceives vibrations due to engine and road roughness. A good level of comfort would require that handlebar and foot pegs natural frequencies should not line up with the operating range frequencies. In this paper the results of experimental tests direct to investigate the handlebar dynamic response is reported; the investigation is adopted to evaluate the possibility of adopting a vibration exciter placed in correspondence of the grips that could provide an alarm signal when a danger situation occur. This type of active assistance has already been used for cars and has proved effective in the accidents prevention.

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    Keywords: Drive Assistant System, Vibration, Handlebar, Motorcycle.

     

    Optimal Solution for Gear Drive Design Using Population Based Algorithm

    by Padmanabhan S., M. Chandrasekaran, P. Asokan, V. Srinivasa Raman

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 802-806

     

    Abstract - Optimization plays a fundamental role in numerous engineering applications such as process design, product design, re-engineering, new product development etc. In engineering, a best answer is achieved by comparison of some completely different solutions through utilization of previous downside information. Optimization algorithms provide systematic associated economical ways of constructing and comparing new design solutions. This enables us to understand a best trend, in order to boost solution efficiency and acquire the foremost optimal design impact. In this paper, a new Evolutionary Algorithm based Modified Artificial Immune System (MAIS) algorithm is used to optimize a gear drive design. The results are compared with an existing design.

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    Keywords: Design Optimization, Helical Gear Drive, Modified Artificial Immune System and Multi-Objective Optimization.

     

    Geometry Based Recursive Algorithm to Control the End Effector of Coordinated TRRLR Manipulators

    by Seetharaman N., R. Sivaramakrishnan, Abin John Thomas

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 807-812

     

    Abstract - This paper focuses on a mobile manipulator which is the combination of a mobile platform and a manipulator, with a highly flexible system, which can be used in hazardous application. One of the challenges with mobile manipulators is the construction of control systems, enabling the robot to operate safely in potentially dynamic and all terrain environments. In this paper we will present work in which a mobile manipulator is controlled using the hybrid approach. The method presented is a real time approach in which geometry of the arm with onboard sensor data processing are used both for the overall coordination of the mobile platform and the manipulator as well as the trajectory planning along a straight line parallel to two planes.

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    Keywords: Forward Kinematics, Trajectory Planning, Robotics Toolbox.

     

    Modeling of Dynamic Response of Beam-Type Vibration Absorbing System Excited by a Moving Mass

    by Mothanna Y. Abd, Azma Putra, Nawal A. A. Jalil, Sidik Susilo

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 813-820

     

    Abstract - A numerical simulation to calculate the dynamic response of a beam attached with beam vibration absorber through a viscoelastic layer subjected to a moving load is presented in this paper. The mathematical model is formulated by using Euler-Bernoulli theory to calculate the vertical response of the system. The effect of the inertia of the moving load is included in the model to study its effect on the beam response at the mid span. The viscoelastic layer is introduced as uniformly distributed stiffness and damping and the concept of mixed damping ratio is implemented which allows the system to be modeled for different rigidity ratio. The response is calculated using time integration method for different moving mass inertia, rigidity ratio of the beams and the stiffness and damping of the visco-elastic layer. The effect is investigated for different values of mass and speed of the moving load.

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    Keywords: Vibration Absorber, Beam, Moving Mass, Dynamic Response.

     

    Research on Dynamics Simulation of CNC Milling Machine Based on Virtual Prototyping

    by Yixuan Wang, Yanli Guo, Ying Wang

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 821-827

     

    Abstract - In this paper, design and analysis of the main structure of milling machine has been done. In order to obtain the parameters of servo control system, the automatic control theory, system modeling, simulation, and virtual prototyping technology and so on are used in this paper. It has built 3D virtual prototype model and control systems of the CNC milling machine on ADAMS and MATLAB platform respectively ,as well as processed united simulation on ADAMS and MATLAB. Through the control of workbench's speed simulations, simulation results are obtained, by which the reasonability and validity have been testified. The method can be applied to the design and adjustment of NC milling machine.

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    Keywords: NC Milling Machine, Virtual Prototype, Workbench, Servo Control System, ADAMS / MATLAB United Simulation.

     

    Comparison of Contact Stress of Helical Gear for Steel C45 with AGMA Standard and FEA Model

    by S. Prabhakaran, S. Ramachandran

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 828-831

     

    Abstract - In helical gears teeth are at an angle with the axis of the gears. A helical gear is termed right handed or left handed. This paper explains about the geometry of helical gears by mathematical equations, load distribution at various positions of the contact line and the stress analysis of helical gears using three-dimensional finite element method. The contact stress in the tooth root was examined for steel C45 using three-dimensional finite element model. Root stresses are evaluated for different positions of the contact line when it moves from the root to the tip. These stresses were compared with the theoretical values. Both results agree very well. This indicates that the finite element method model is accurate.

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    Keywords: Gearing, Transmission System, Bending Stresses, Root Stresses.

     

    Harnessing Energy from Mechanical Vibration Using Non-Adaptive Circuit and Smart Structure

    by Intan Z. Mat Darus, Ameirul A. Mustadza, Hanim Mohd Yatim

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 832-840

     

    Abstract - Energy harnessing for the purpose of powering low power electronic devices has received much attention in the last few years. By harnessing ambient energy from the environment it will eliminate the need for batteries and supplying the portable electronic devices such as cell phones, laptops and MP3 players with infinite amount of energy. The ambient energy that can be harnessed to generate electricity comes from a wide range of sources but vibration energy shows a promising amount of power generation. This paper present the integration of instrumentation for conversion of mechanical vibration into electricity using piezoelectric vibration-to-electricity converter, quantification of the amount of power that can be generated and identification of electronic devices that can fully utilize this power. The research is conducted on the laboratory experiment on vibrating mechanical equipment such as turbine and centrifugal pump. The experimental result shows that for the turbine, as the speed of the turbine increases from 1150 rpm to 1450 rpm, the average power produced increases from 1.63 W to 2.02 W. Also, for the centrifugal pump, as the speed increases from 1700 rpm to 1900 rpm, the average power produced increases from 3.02 W to 3.06 W. The experimental results also revealed that within 30 minutes, 1.84 W of energy could be harnessed from the vibration of the turbine at speed of 1450 rpm while 3.06 W of energy could be harnessed from the vibration of the centrifugal pump at speed of 1900 rpm. This power output is sufficient for low-powered wireless sensor networks in silent mode which can be used in variety of applications as indicated in the previous literature.

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    Keywords: Energy Harnessing, Mechanical Vibration, Non-Adaptive Circuit, Piezoelectric, Vibration-To-Electric Energy Conversion.

     

    A Full Scale Test Rig to Characterize Pneumatic Tyre Mechanical Behaviour

    by Flavio Farroni, Ernesto Rocca, Francesco Timpone

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 841-846

     

    Abstract - In this paper an experimental test rig aimed to characterize mechanical properties of a pneumatic tyre, together with some results, is presented. The objective is to determine tyre mechanical characteristics useful to physically model its behaviour; in particular: the normal interaction characteristic, the radial stiffness, the total stiffness and the longitudinal hysteretic cycles. To this aim two different kind of tests have been executed: radial and longitudinal. In the radial test the load is statically applied to the tyre, along the vertical direction, by means of an hydraulic press and it is measured together with the consequent radial deformation, so allowing the estimation of the tyre normal interaction characteristic and of its radial stiffness. Different radial tests can be conducted for an assigned tyre varying the inflation pressure. The longitudinal tests are conducted applying, under an assigned constant vertical load, a variable horizontal strain to the tyre by means of a linear actuator, two profile rail guides and a system to transfer the horizontal motion to the contact patch of the tyre, opportunely placed on a moving steel plate placed on the two linear guide rails. During the tests the horizontal load and the resulting deformations are measured and acquired so allowing the estimation of tyre total stiffness and of its longitudinal hysteretic cycles. Longitudinal tests can be conducted varying the assigned vertical load, the horizontal displacement law in terms of frequency and amplitude, the tyre inflation pressure. All the different types of rim can be mounted on the test rig thanks to a universal quick flange.

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    Keywords: Tyre, Stiffness, Hysteresis, Experimental Test Rig.

     

    Transient Wave Propagation in Non-Homogeneous Viscoelastic Media

    by Shahin Nayyeri Amiri, Asad Esmaeily

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 847-856

     

    Abstract - Propagation of transient pressure waves in nonhomogeneous viscoelastic media with a cylindrical hole of circular cross section is investigated by employing the theory of propagating surfaces of discontinuities. The non-homogeneities are assumed to depend on the radial distance from the axis of the cylindrical hole. The solutions for the normal stress components and the radial particle velocity are expressed as Taylor series expansions about the time of arrival of the wave front. Two types of boundary conditions are considered. The wall of the cylindrical hole is either subjected to uniform pressure or to uniform radial particle velocity both of which have arbitrary dependence on time. Then the solutions are reduced to the special case of homogeneous viscoelastic media. Numerical computations are carried out for a homogeneous standard linear solid and for a uniform pressure with a step distribution in time applied at the wall of the hole. These numerical results are compared with those obtained previously by other investigators who have employed the method of characteristics.

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    Keywords: Transient Wave Propagation, Non Homogeneous, Viscoelastic Media.

     

    Study on the Heat Transfer of the Rectangular Fin with Dehumidification: Temperature Distribution and Fin Efficiency

    by Abdenour Bourabaa, Mohamed Saighi, Malika Fekih, Brahim Belal

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 857-863

     

    Abstract - This study presents a numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of a plain fin with combined heat and mass transfer. Using the finite difference scheme the differential equation results from an energy balance on an element of the fin has been solved to obtain temperature distribution along the fin surface. The effects of variations in relative humidity, dry air and fin base temperatures, atmospheric pressure, and fin pitch on temperature distribution and also on fin efficiency are discussed.

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    Keywords: Dehumidification, Fin Analysis, Heat and Mass Transfer, Heat Exchangers, Wet Fin Efficiency.

     

    Theoretical, Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Heat Loss for Designing a Parabolic Concentrator

    by Abhijeet B. Auti, T. P. Singh, Mandar S. Sapre

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 864-868

     

    Abstract - Parabolic solar concentrators are used for cooking to reduce the burden on conventional fuels. More efficient design of concentrator is possible when utilization of solar energy is known. The paper explains the heat analysis by solar concentrator. The heat input received by the solar radiation is divided for heat utilization, heat loss through convection and radiation and loss through transmission in air medium. All these losses are calculated theoretically and experimentally and verified with finite element analysis using ANSYS.

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    Keywords: Absorber, Focal Area.

     

    Instant Hot Water Generation System for Domestic Utility in Rural Areas

    by P. Selvakumar, P. Somasundaram

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 869-873

     

    Abstract - Hot water is required for bathing and cleaning of utensils in the morning and evening hours in Indian homes. People in rural areas use fossil fuels, cooking gas and rarely electricity for hot water production. Present day solar collectors cannot help in instant hot water generation. A system involving a parabolic trough, an evacuated tube and Therminol D-12 oil is developed and studied for instant hot water generation. The developed system works satisfactorily during low incident solar radiation. Experiments on the developed new system show that Therminol D-12 helps to generate hot water at a temperature of 60C within 10 minutes of time with low solar radiation.

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    Keywords: Instant Hot Water, Therminol, Domestic Water Heating.

     

    Numerical Study of Ice Melting Inside a Rectangular Cavity and a Horizontal Cylinder Including Convective Effects

    by Christiano G. S. Santim, Luiz Fernando Milanez

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 874-881

     

    Abstract - The present work deals with the numerical study of ice melting inside a rectangular cavity with all isothermally heated walls and inside a horizontal cylinder with isothermally heated wall, utilizing a CFD code. Initially the solid material is sub-cooled. The objective is to verify the influence of the heating in the melting process as well as the sub-cooling effect. Some simplifying hypotheses were assumed in the mathematical model. The thermophysical properties of phase change material were considered constants, except for the density where the relation proposed by Gebhart and Mollendorf [1] was used. The problem was solved by using a mathematical formulation based on the enthalpy-porosity method, which allows the use of a fixed spatial grid. The total heat flux in the inner surfaces was obtained for the systems, as well as several temperature profiles, streamlines and melting front positions. Correlations for the total ice melting time as a function of the Stefan number was presented. It was found that the convective effects directly influences the melting front profiles, the heat transfer in the systems and the melting rates.

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    Keywords: Horizontal Cylinder, Ice Melting, Natural Convection, PCM, Simulation.

     

    Effect of the Flow Field Design and Gas Flow Configuration on the Performance of the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell An Experimental Analysis

    by V. Savithiri, G. Nagarajan

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 882-887

     

    Abstract - Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy in fuels into electrical energy directly, promising power generation with high efficiency and low environmental impact. The most predominantly used fuel cell is proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell because of its wide range of applications. The performance of PEM fuel cells strongly depend on many factors including operating conditions, transport phenomena in the cells, electrochemical reaction kinetics, flow field design and manufacturing process. This experimental research aims to study the effect of different gas flow field designs on the PEM fuel cells performance. A new flow field design was established and its performance was compared with the serpentine flow field and convection enhanced serpentine flow field. It was observed that at lower reactant flow rates, the new design showed better performance. Different reactant flow configurations were also studied and the results reveal that the gas flow configuration has a significant effect on the cell performance.

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    Keywords: PEM Fuel Cell, Water Management, Flow Field Design, Gas Flow Configuration, Under Rib Convection.

     

    Cycle Efficiency Optimization for ORC Solar Plants

    by A. Amoresano, G. Langella, S. Meo

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 888-894

     

    Abstract - Organic Rankine Cycle plants have been becoming an interesting chance to convert solar energy into electrical energy, when working at not very high temperature levels. Global efficiency of such plants depends on several factors, including mirror optics, receiver tube thermal losses, fluid working cycle, mechanical-electrical conversion. The paper investigates particularly about cycle efficiency and its optimization varying both organic fluid and efficiency improving techniques, as regeneration or reheat. The analysis has been performed evaluating the cycle efficiency in a lot of cases, comparing each other. Results are critically presented, offering a decisional tool when designing an ORC solar plant for medium temperature levels.

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    Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle, Solar Energy.

     

    Integrated Oil Palm Fruit Digester-Separator-Screw Press Machine

    by Nwankwojike, B. Nduka

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 895-902

     

    Abstract - An integrated digester-separator-screw press machine for digesting sterilized palm fruit, separating the digested mash into nuts and pulp before pressing only the digested pulp for palm oil extraction was developed and evaluated. This machine, designed based on the modified palm oil and nut extraction process and fabricated using locally sourced standard materials, eliminated drudgery in the loading and discharging of intermediate materials among the digestion, nut-pulp separation and pressing operations in the new process. The major components of this machine include an electric motor, feed hopper, horizontal digesting unit, cake breaking unit, auger separating unit, screw press and discharging outlets for palm nut, palm oil and pressed fibre. Performance test analysis revealed nut breakage index, average throughput and palm oil extraction efficiency of this machine as zero, 204.51kg/h and 97.44% respectively. Thus, the integrated machine constitutes a veritable option for quality palm oil and nuts production boost in small and medium scale palm fruit processing.

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    Keywords: Digester, Drudgery, Integrated Machine, Nut Breakage, Nut-Pulp Separator, Screw Press.

     

    Machinability Study of Biocomposite: Palm Oil Based wax/LLDPE/Palm Oil Fiber Blends for Prototype Application

    by A. N. M. Khalil, M. F. M. A. Hamzas, M. S. Hussin, Z. A. Zailani, A. B. Sanuddin

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 903-911

     

    Abstract - This paper is to find the possibility of developing a new blend composite in order to produce a prototype for engineering application. The new palm oil based wax is a waste material produced from palm oil refining process. Recent prototyping activity, industrial blue wax is normally used to produce part prototypes from the machining process. Hence, the tensile strength of new palm oil based wax/LLDPE/Palm oil fiber blends was investigated. The result shows that the tensile strength of new palm oil based wax/LLDPE/Palm oil fiber blend was obtained is higher compared to the existing industrial blue wax. Machinability study covered surface roughness, chip formation characteristic, dimensional consistency and cutting tool wear. The higher tensile strength of the blend was selected to preceed for the machining test. The comparison results between LLDPE/palm oil based wax/ Palm oil fiber blends and Industrial blue wax were recorded. However, since the cost of this new palm oil based wax is lower, it will be an attractive option to replace the existing industrial blue wax for prototype application.

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    Keywords: Machinability, Palm Oil, Industrial Wax, LLDPE, Prototype.

     

    An Effect of Boric Acid Mixture as Solid Lubricant Towards Machining Processes

    by Z. A. Zailani, A. B. Sanuddin, M. S. Hussin, A. N. M. Khalil, M. F. M. A Hamzas, Nurliana Ahmad Mustafa

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 912-918

     

    Abstract - Milling is widely used metal removal process in manufacturing industry that involves generation of high cutting forces and temperature. Lubricants become important in order to reduce the cutting force and temperature for better machining processes and performances. Conventional cutting fluid has some limitations. The applications of conventional cutting fluid create some techno-environmental problems like environmental pollution, biological problems to operators and water pollution. Application of solid lubricant in milling has proved to be a feasible alternative to the conventional cutting fluids. The present work investigates the effect of boric acid as solid lubricant towards machining performances such as tool wear and surface roughness. The results indicate that boric acid can improve the cutting processes and performance compared to conventional cutting fluid.

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    Keywords: Milling, Cutting Fluid, Solid Lubricant, Boric Acid.

     

    Experimental Investigation on the Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Polymer Oil - Ethanol Blends

    by Ganapathi P., Robinson Y.

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 919-924

     

    Abstract - This paper describes an experimental study of using polymer oil obtained from the plastic waste as a fuel in diesel engine. In this study, the effects of using polymer oil ethanol fuel blends [PE10, PE20] on the engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics have been experimentally investigated. In the present work, 10% ethanol and 90% polymer oil, called here as PE10 and 20% Ethanol and 80% polymer oil called here as PE20 were used in a single cylinder four stroke, water cooled diesel engine. The engine fuelled by the blends is comparable with that fuelled by diesel. The experimental result showed that the carbon monoxide, carbondioxide, Oxides of nitrogen and smoke were significantly reduced. Unburned hydrocarbon, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were found to have increased with ethanol-polymer oil blends.

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    Keywords: Diesel, Polymer Oil, Plastic Waste, Ethanol, Engine Performance.

     

    Biodiesel Blend, Fuel Properties and its Emission Characteristics Sterculia Oil in Diesel Engine

    by P. P. Sethusundaram, K. P. Arulshri, K. Mylsamy

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 925-929

     

    Abstract - In the wake of current energy scenario, major research is focused on sustainable energy solution with major emphasis on energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources. Diesel engines have proven their utility in the transportation and power sectors due to their higher efficiency and ruggedness. Depending upon the availability and production capabilities, biodiesel is derived from a large variety of oilseed. Sterculia bio fuel is identified and proved to be the best alternative to the diesel engine. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the properties like specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, pour point, flash point, fire point and calorific value of the fuels used. The overall performance and emission tests have given good results except for the NOX component of the emission, which is a potential cause for smog and acid rain. This paper also focuses on the reduction of this component to a great extent with the implementation of a technique called Exhaust Gas Recirculation. In this method the water cooled exhaust of the engine is circulated back to the inlet manifold to crack the harmful NOX. This makes the bio diesel a completely emission free alternative.

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    Keywords: Bio Fuel, Sterculia Oil, Calorific Value, Emission, Exhausts Gas.

     

    Experimental Investigations of Silicon Carbide Fly Ash Reinforced Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite

    by Vivekanandan P., Arunachalam V. P.

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 930-938

     

    Abstract - Metal matrix composites are used mostly in space ships, aerospace, automotive, nuclear bio technology, electronic and sporting goods industries, but due to their high cost, experiments are usually done to reduce the cost of composites and inexpensive materials are utilized for metal matrix composites. Fly Ash is one of the most inexpensive and low density reinforcement available in large quantities as solid waste by product during combustion of coal in thermal power plants. So, composites with Fly Ash can be used to reduce the cost of the metal matrix for applications in automotive and small engine applications. It is therefore expected that the incorporation of Fly Ash particles in Aluminium alloy will promote yet another use of this low cost waste by product and at the same time has the potential for conserving energy intensive Aluminium and thereby, reducing the cost of Aluminium products. In this investigation, 10% SiC particles reinforced Al-MMC was prepared using stir casting method. The ratio of Hardness with respect to the weight fraction on the specimen was prepared. The various mechanical test via hardness & tensile test are taken to analyze the properties .The microstructure of Al-MMCs were studied in SEM microstructure.

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    Keywords: Aluminium, SiC, Flyash, Tensile, Hardness, SEM, Wear.

     

    Development of Empirical Models of Polyfelt Fibrous Materials for Acoustical Applications

    by L. Egab, X. Wang, S. K. Mazlan, M. L. Choo

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 939-946

     

    Abstract - In this study, new empirical models for predicting the airflow resistivity, sound absorption coefficient of polyfelt fibrous materials have been developed. The empirical models were presented as simple power-relations by least square best fitting method of impedance tube and flow bench test data over a set of 14 samples. Two coefficients were identified for a new empirical formula to predict the airflow resistivity from the mass density and thickness of polyfelt materials and eight coefficients were identified for a new empirical formula to predict the characteristic acoustic impedance, propagation coefficients and sound absorption coefficient from the airflow resistivity. For the given mass density and thickness of a polyfelt fibrous material, the outcome proposed in this paper enables a quick and accurate evaluation of the acoustic properties of the material such as the airflow resistivity and sound absorption coefficient without a further requirement of flow bench and impedance tube tests. This is because that the predicted results from the new empirical models are closer to the measured results in the frequency range of interest than the other models in the previous work in the published literatures.

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    Keywords: Polyfelt Fibrous Materials, Absorption Coefficient, Characteristic Acoustic Impedance, Propagation Coefficient, Airflow Resistivity.

     

    Workability Behaviour of Al-SiC Matrix P/M Composite Under Triaxial Stress State Condition

    by J. Bensam Raj, P. Marimuthu, M. Prabhakar, V. Anandakrishnan

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 947-954

     

    Abstract - Workability is concerned with the scope to which a material can be deformed in a specific metalworking process without the initiation of cracks. The ductile fracture of components is the most common mode of cracks in any metalworking processes. Workability is the complex technological concept, depends upon the ductility of the material and the details of the process parameters. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the workability behaviour of the Al-SiC during cold upsetting. In the present study three types of sintering temperature and time have been considered to evaluate the effect of P/M preforms of Al-SiC composite on workability studies. The material studied in this paper is Aluminium with SiC reinforcement. SiC content has been varied from 0 to 20 percent. The experimental results were analyzed for workability under triaxial stress state condition as a function of the relative density. The formability stress index (βσ) and stress ratio parameters namely σθ/σeff was obtained. These phenomena have shown tremendous variations for different kind of sintering temperature and time.

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    Keywords: Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites, Powder Metallurgy, Workability Plastic Behaviour.

     

    Experimental and Emission Analysis of Rubber Seed Oil and Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in Compression Ignition Engine

    by S. Mahalingam, B. R. Ramesh Bapu

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 955-959

     

    Abstract - In the fast growing world of automobiles, the demand for petroleum products is increasing day by day. Many of renewable energies are used to full fill that demand. One of the best alternatives is the use of biodiesel. In this study a dual fuel blend with pure diesel in a single cylinder direct injection constant speed diesel engine was analyzed by varying the power outputs with different proportions of the fuel blends. In the dual fuel operation, the rubber seed oil and jatropha oil blends with diesel. The proportions of 20% and 40% blend have been investigated on volume basis. In this dual fuel operation is observed that they have higher emission of hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions than the ester, diesel blend. The ignition delay was reduced using dual fuel blend with diesel and efficiencies were improved. The proportion, B20 (20% of biodiesel) is gives the optimum efficiency with low emission.

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    Keywords: Rubber Seed Oil, Jatropha Oil, Emission, Performance.

     

    A Review of Localised Time-Frequency Features Classification Associated to Fatigue Data Analysis

    by M. F. M. Yunoh, S. Abdullah, Z. M. Nopiah, M. Z. Nuawi

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 960-976

     

    Abstract - The paper presents a review of the rational to perform the localised time-frequency fatigue damage feature classifications, which can be categorised as an alternative approach for fatigue life prediction that is relatively new in this research field. It is a good need to have a study in fatigue feature classification that lead to the formation of a new guideline and enable a design to the same reference level as well as high reliability towards the maximum usage. Consequently, this review paper emphasis on the concentration for performing the localised time-frequency feature classification approach as a scientific and engineering knowledge advancement in about fatigue of material and structures. Hence, related approaches to be said as the subject contents, i.e. fatigue life prediction models, signal processing approaches, the implementation of segmentation and clustering methods towards fatigue data, as well as data classification that lead for pattern recognition technique. It is known from the literature about the selection of the appropriate approaches which were often based on the analysts experience and preferences. By predicting the structure fatigue life, which needs only several variable and will automatically calculate, classify and optimise the severity of fatigue damage through the significant mathematical and experimental findings, leading to cost and time saving.

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    Keywords: Clustering, Fatigue, Features Classification, Review, Signal Processing.

     

    Strength of the Weld Line and Warpage Defects on the Molded Parts in Injection Molding Process

    by S. M. Nasir, , K. A. Ismail, Z. Shayfull, , N. A. Shuaib

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 977-990

     

    Abstract - Strength at weld the line location and warpage problem in injection molding plastic component were not new problems in injection molding industries. Many researchers had emerged with several improvement techniques to reduce these problems that been applied to a verity of customer products that injected with various types of polymers. This paper reviewed the improvement techniques previously studied to maximize strength at weld line location and minimize warpage or deflections of the molded parts. From the review, it can be seen that by using mechanical and thermal assistance during injection molding process, and the optimization of machine parameters for stated problems can be improved. However, there was lack on the multi objectives optimization which should be apply to ensure the weld line and warpage were improved together to get the best quality products.

    Copyright 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

     

    Keywords: Injection Molding, Weld line Strength, Warpage, Optimization.

     

    Design of a Fuzzy Logic Approach for Optimization of Fracture Length in Hydrofracturing Technique

    by B. Guruprasad, A. Ragupathy, T. S. Badrinarayanan, E. Sambath

    Vol. 7. n. 5, pp. 991-998

     

    Abstract - This paper presents the application of a fuzzy logic controller and Response surface methodology in developing the fracture length as a mechanical property in hydrofracturing technique. In this study, a fuzzy logic controller was used to explore functional relationships between variables to determine the effect of operating parameter, and to achieve optimal process conditions. In addition, the most relevant input variables are identified through analysis of variance using Design expert software (version 8.0) and implemented in the construction of an appropriate fuzzy logic controller model. The experimental results indicate that the combination of response surface methodology and a fuzzy logic controller makes a robust, effective and efficient approach using Matlab / Simulink tool box software.

    Copyright 2013 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

     

    Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Control, RSM, Hydro Fracturing, Fracture Length, Analysis of Variance.

     



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