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International Review of Chemical Engineering (Rapid Communications) - January 2011 (Vol. 3 N. 1)  - Papers





          Special Section on "2nd CEAM 2010 - Virtual Forum"





International Review of Chemical Engineering (Rapid Communications) - Papers



go to top   Critical Analysis of Data Concerning Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Free-Cell Proliferations and Fermentations assisted by Magnetic aand Electromagnetic Fields
         by Jordan Hristov, Victor.H.Perez

         Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 1-18


Abstract - The review analyses studies on magnetically assisted proliferations and batch fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. The results available in the literature are contradictory and show two tendencies: magnetic field suppression of the cell growth and positive effects in batch fermentation with increasing both biomass and metabolite production. The amount of data analyzed allows several concepts existing in the literature to be outlined and critically commented. Further, a new concept of magnetically induced micro-dynamos, recently conceived, is developed towards a unified explanation of the results provided by proliferation and batch fermentation experiments.

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Keywords: Magnetic Field, Proliferation, Fermentation, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, MLD Concept.



go to top   Numerical Investigation of Sic Deposition Rate using a Tubular Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor
         by A. Jamali Keikha, T. Fanaei S., A. Behzadmehr

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 19-23


Abstract - Chemical vapor deposition process for SiC deposition on a quartz substrate by PCS + Ar system in a horizontal hot-wall reactor is studied numerically. A three dimensional numerical model is adopted to investigate the deposition rate throughout the reactor. The effects of process parameters, including substrate temperature, Reynolds of the precursors, and the volume fraction of PCS, on the deposition rate of SiC are studied.

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Keywords: CVD, Sic Deposition, Simulation, Hot-Wall Reactor.



go to top   Extraction and Characterization of Keratin from Poultry Feathers
         by P. E. Dim, M. O. Edoga

          Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 24-27


Abstract - The objective of this study was to extract and characterize-feather keratin. Poultry feathers were first pretreated and ground to 1.00 mm particle size. Subsequently, the keratin was extracted from the feather powder with an aqueous solution of sodium sulphide at 400C for 3 hrs. This allowed the extraction of 78 % of the keratin present in the dry feather. The characterization of the keratin sample was carried out to determine its nitrogen content, sulphur content, ash content, specific gravity, and moisture content, respectively. Infrared and ultraviolet analyses of keratin were also carried out. The results obtained from this work confirmed the sample to be poultry feather-keratin.

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Keywords: Keratin, Characterization, Extraction, Poultry Feather, Solubilization.



go to top   Development and Characterization af Keratin Modified Urea Formaldehyde Resins
         by P.E.Dim, M.O.Edoga

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 28-30


Abstract - The aim of this study was to develop and characterize keratin-modified-urea- formaldehyde resin. Firstly, poultry feathers were collected and then ground to 1.00 mm particle size. Subsequently, keratin was extracted from the poultry feather powder using an aqueous solution of sodium sulphide at 40oC for 3 hours. The extract was used in developing the urea-formaldehyde resin. The physicochemical properties of the resins which included viscosity, gel time, specific gravity, pH and total solid content of the modified resins were determined. These properties of the modified urea-formaldehyde resin were compared with those of neat urea-formaldehyde resins. The results showed that the modified urea-formaldehyde resins gave improved qualities than the neat urea- formaldehyde resin. The results of the physicochemical properties of the four resin samples namely the neat formaldehyde and three modified urea-formaldehyde resin samples are given as follows: viscosity, solid content, specific gravity, gel time; 260cp, 280cp, 300cp, 330cp; 62%, 63.5%, 66%, 69%; 1.45, 1.34, 1.29, 1.25; 180 secs, 167 secs, 120 secs, 82 secs, respectively.

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Keywords: Keratin Modified Urea Formaldehyde Resins, Physico-Chemical Properties, Poultry Feathers.



go to top   Experimental Investigation of Natural Gas Fuel Preheating Effects on the Flame Luminosity and NO Emission
         by S. M. Javadi, M. Moghiman, M. Joleini
           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 31-35


Abstract - The flame radiation enhancement in gas fired furnaces significantly improves the thermal efficiency and also reduces flame temperature, which results in NO emission reduction. In this research, the effects of the inlet natural gas fuel temperature on the flame luminosity and the NO emission in a boiler were investigated experimentally. The Exhaust gases temperature and nitrogen oxides emissions were measured for different inlet fuel temperatures. Also, the resultant radiation of flame luminosity was measured by a photovoltaic module. Results show that by increasing the inlet gas temperature up to 240oC, NO concentration and exhaust gases temperature increases. But, with further increasing of the inlet gas temperature from 240oC to 310oC, NO concentration and exhaust gases temperature decreases significantly as a result of an increase in flame luminosity. This special behavior, which disputes with common expectation, also happens in highly preheated air combustion technology.

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Keywords: Gas Fuel Temperature, Flame Luminosity, Radiation Enhancement, NO Emission.



go to top   Ecological Threats Caused by Improper Disposal and Incineration of Municipal Solid Waste
         by Mikhail Krasnyansky

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 36-50


Abstract - The paper discusses a critical situation regarding municipal solid waste (MSW) in Donetsk city (Ukraine) as a suitable example. Special attention is given to such problems as bio-degradation and self-ignition of MSW dumps as well as the hazard of dioxins that might be present in the emitted gases. The paper describes the materials as well as techniques used for experiments and calculations of results. The paper offers theoretical calculations of biogas emissions from MSW landfill bodies as well as the results of experimental measurements performed within laboratory conditions of a “MSW micro-landfill”. Dynamics of development of microorganism colonies within the body of MSW has been studied experimentally and a mathematical model of these processes was developed. There was calculated a volume of leachate (“MSW-sewage”) produced at MSW landfills as well as migration of toxic waste from the leachate to underground water and soil surrounding MSW landfills of Donetsk. MSW self-ignition processes taking place within waste layers and diffusion of toxic fire-hazardous gases have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. There have been developed and proposed techniques of forecasting and prevention of MSW self-ignition within MSW layers. Processes of MSW incineration together with resinous industrial waste have been studied within the framework of experiments, namely: there were measured emissions of toxic combustion gases and heavy metals as well as “distribution” of the latter in combustion gases and ash.

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Keywords: Municipal Waste, Landfill, Biogas, Toxic Gases, Leachate, Self-Ignition.



go to top   The Mannich Reaction in Imidazo [1,2-A] Pyridine Sries assisted by Microwave
         by O. Cheham, S. Ghezali, A.Derdor
           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 51-54


Abstract - A comparative studying for the preparation of new compounds in series Imidazo [1,2-a] pyridine via the Mannich reaction which was carried out. Mannich bases, 3 to 6, were synthesized under standard conditions (conventional heating) or microwave irradiation (MW), by action of secondary amines on 2-methyl imidazo [1,2-a] pyridine 1 in the presence of formaldehyde. The results show synthesis under different conditions, for the first time, the training side of Mannich bases of 7 dimer resulting from the condensation of two moles of compound 1 and a mole of formaldehyde with very variable yields. For compound 3, for example,it is about 100%. Our study shows, whenthat we are preparing the initial substrate under MW irradiation, the presence of a compound 2 of the same molecular weight in the trace.

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Keywords: Micro Irradiation Waves, Imidazopyridine, C and N Aminomethylation, Amines Secondary.



go to top   Effect of Time and Solvent/Feed Ratio on the Extraction of Mannan from Aloe Vera Leaf Pulp
         by A. C. Kumoro, D. S. Retnowati, C. S. Budiyati

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 55-60


Abstract - Mannan is one of oligosaccharides contained in the Aloe Vera leaf pulp gel, which exhibits promising potential as a raw material of edible coating due to its antimicrobial, antifungal, coating and drying properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of time and solvent/feed ratio on the extraction of mannan from A. Vera leaf pulp. Extraction was carried out in a three necked flask equipped with mechanical agitator, Leibig condenser and thermometer. Two hundreds grams of A. Vera leaf pulp was juiced and the remaining pellet was then subjected to water extraction at 40oC and certain solvent/feed ratios for a specified time. Upon precipitation of A. Vera juice and supernatant by addition of ethanol, the precipitated extract was lyophilized and determined its mannan content. The optimum extraction time was found to be 45 minutes where reasonable yield and rendemen were obtained with highest extract purity. The optimum feed/solvent ratio was 4, where highest yield and rendemen were obtained at good extract purity. Hydrolysis was likely to happen when feed/solvent ratio higher than 4 as excess water at warm temperature causing reduction of extraction yield and rendemen. The proposed mathematical model suited the experimental data very well.

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Keywords: Aloe Vera, Extraction, Mannan, Ratio, Time.



go to top   Analysis of the Relativistic Compression Process
         by Marko E. Popovic

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 61-67


Abstract - Thermodynamic aspect of relativistic compression is analyzed. This process Planck understood as isobaric, Ott and Einstein as adiabatic and Popovic as isotherm. The fact is that no external work is performed on the system during the process of relativistic compression in vacuum. Therefore it is concluded that relativistic compression is good example of virtual isenthalpic compression. If the system is isolated then it is possible to discuss virtual phenomenon of relativistic volume contraction and consequently virtual isenthalpic + isentropic process.

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Keywords: Enthalpy, Entropy, Lorentz/Fitzgerald Contraction, Thermodynamic Process.



go to top   Study of Heat Transfer from an Immersed Bar in a Simple Batch Bubble Column by CFD
         by Rahbar Rahimi, Ali Valipoor Tayebi

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 68-75


Abstract -In this research the gas and liquid phases of a bubble column were modeled in a 3-D CFD in the Eulerian framework as two interpenetrating phases. For estimating the heat transfer rate, the heater was positioned 650 mm above the gas distributor. Several heaters of different length to diameter ratios were used. The influence of heater orientation was also considered. It has been found that the vertical dimension has an effect on the heat transfer rate from an immersed bar in a simple bubble column. The results show the decrease of heat transfer coefficient up to the vertical size of about 50 mm. The increase of heat transfer coefficient with the increase of bulk temperature is in agreement with the experimental findings. The correlated heat transfer coefficient that obtained from CFD experimentation as (St = 0.11(ReFrPr2)-0.25) is in good agreement with the published correlations that are obtained from physical experimentations.

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Keywords: Bubble Column, CFD, Heat Transfer Coefficient, Hydrodynamics.



go to top   Residence Time Distribution Measurements for an Annular Chemical Reactor
         by S. Rejeb, A. Hannachi, A. Ratel

          Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 76-81


Abstract - Improving the performances of heterogeneous chemical reactors is a challenge which often engineer confronts. One of the key factors affecting these performances is the flow patterns induced inside the reactor. Flow characterizations are thus essential to guarantee the success of reactions and thus increase the output of the industrial processes. Residence times Distribution (RTD) is one of the most common approaches used to study the performances of the stirred systems. This study aims to characterize flow patterns in a special agitated reactor used in phosphoric acid production plants. The flow patterns of a pilot annular reactor were studied experimentally by interpreting the Residence Time Distribution curves. The method of pulse marking with a dye tracer was used. Detection of the tracer concentration was made by the conductimetric technique. The effect of various parameters, such as the impellers speed, the communication area, feed flow rate and inlet stream’s locations have been studied. The flow pattern for given conditions has been unfold and is strongly depending on processing conditions. The use of visual flow characterization technique showed that the reactor can be modeled by a cascade of a well-mixed reactor with recirculation. Work is currently underway to estimate flow rates which may support experimental work significantly.

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Keywords: Annular Reactor, Hydrodynamics, Residence Time Distribution, Measurements, Analysis.



go to top   Medium Composition Effect on the Expression of Lack Antigen from Leishmania chagasi in Escherichia coli
         by Michelle Rossana Ferreira Vaz, Sirtys Santos Lessa de Andrade, Francisco Canindé de Sousa Junior, Everaldo Silvino dos Santos, Daniella Regina Arantes Martins, Gorete Ribeiro de Macedo

          Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 82-86


Abstract - Leishmaniasis is a complex disease affecting over 12 million people worldwide. Actually, there is no vaccine to treat this disease. Studies indicate that DNA coding for the LACK antigen provides protection against Leishmania major. In this context, this work aimed to study the expression of LACK antigen from Leishmania chagasi in recombinant E. coli. Protein expression was induced by the addition by IPTG in order to observe the influence of the media composition (2xTY, TB) under expression of LACK recombinant protein. Protein induction by IPTG showed that the best results were obtained in the 2xTY medium. It can be observed that LACK protein expression showed an associated behavior growth in 2xTY and TB medium, and the expression of the interest protein was confirmed by electrophoresis, in this case molecular mass were 72 kDa and 60 kDa when 2xTY and TB medium were used, respectivel.

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Keywords: LACK Antigen; Visceral Leishmaniasis; Escherichia Coli.



go to top   The Effect of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration on Diethyl Ether Production By Using Adsorption –Dehydration Process
         by Widayat, A. Roesyadi , M. Rachimoellah

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 87-92


Abstract - The objective of this research is to produce DiEthyl Ether from ethanol broth fermentation by using adsorption - dehydration process with H-zeolite as catalyst. H-zeolite catalyst was synthesized from natural zeolite obtained from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The H-zeolite catalyst was produced with chemical treatment, washing, drying and calcinations processes and then impregnation by using Al /aluminum. The zeolite catalyst was analyzed for its X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. DiEthyl Ether was produced by adsorption with molecular sieve and then continued by dehydration process. DiEthyl Ether production used a fixed bed reactor with 1/2 in diameter, and ethanol fermentation broth as feed. The operation condition was 140-240oC and atmospheric pressure. The main compounds in the liquid phase of products are diethyl ether, methanol, ethanol and water. The result also showed that the adsorption process can increase purity of ethanol and therefore increase the ethanol conversion. Moreover, increasing operation temperature and ethanol concentration were able to increase the ethanol conversion, while H-zeolite and Alumina catalyst had the same affects in the ethanol conversion.

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Keywords: H-Zeolite, Adsorption, Conversion Of Ethanol, Temperature, Ethanol Concentration.



go to top   Stability and Degradation Kinetics of Lycopene in Vegetable Oils
         by Antonio Zuorro, Roberto Lavecchia

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 93-98


Abstract - The stability of lycopene in sunflower seed oil (SSO), grape seed oil (GSO) and rice bran oil (RBO) was investigated in the temperature range of 10-40 °C. Kinetic analysis of lycopene degradation showed that the process is first-order with respect to the carotenoid concentration, with apparent activation energies between 50.8 kJ mol-1 (RBO) and 70.0 kJ mol-1 (GSO). The half-life of lycopene in the oils was dependent on the storage temperature and varied from 303 to 530 days, at 4 °C, and from 86 to 104 days, at 20 °C. Below 15-20 °C, stability increased in the order: RBO < GSO < SSO, while at higher temperatures such differences tended to disappear. This is likely due to the combined effects of endogenous antioxidants and unsaturated triacylglycerols in the oils on the degradation pathway of lycopene.

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Keywords: Degradation Kinetics, Functional Food Products, Lycopene, Storage Stability, Vegetable Oils.



go to top   Self-Compacting Concrete (Book Review)
         reviewed by Ghada Bassioni

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 99-100



Special Section on “2nd CEAM 2010 - Virtual Forum” - Papers


go to top   Optimization of Electromagnetic Filtration Variables Using a Genetic Algorithm
         by T. Abbasov, M. Yuceer, Z. Yildiz, E. Sener

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 101-104


Abstract - In this study, effects of the parameters of filtration process on the effectiveness of the separation of magnetizable particles from a liquid (medium) phase have been discussed. Thus, we have aimed at optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the electromagnetic filtration efficiency in artificial corrosion product suspensions. The genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the selected variables. The external magnetic strength, size of the filter matrix elements, filter length and filtration velocity are chosen as the optimized variables. Electromagnetic filtration efficiency was selected as objective function of the optimization. It has been found that electromagnetic filtration efficiency decreased with increasing filtration velocity and size of the filter matrix elements on the other hand electromagnetic filtration efficiency increased with increasing filter length and the external magnetic strength. Four variables were successfully optimized and a maximum level of the electromagnetic filtration efficiency of 0,738 was reached on a nonlinear model.

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Keywords: Magnetic Filtration, Genetic Algorithm, Dispersions.



go to top   Investigation into the Voidage Distributions of Nano-Sized Titania Agglomeration in Annular Fluidized Bed
         by Qijin Geng, Qingjie Guo, Nan Chen, Ruiyuan Tang

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 105-110


Abstract - The voidage distributions and related influencing factors of nano-sized titania agglomeration fluidization in an annular fluidized bed reactor were investigated. The voidage data were determined using fluidized bed monitor system to measure the pressure drop along the bed and PV-6A type particle velocity tester with a dioptic fiber velocimeter. The results indicated that the fluidized bed can be divided three sections along axial profile, i.e. fixed, emulsion and dilute fluidization region, with an obvious interface between fixed region and emulsion region. An obvious fall of voidage exists at the radial position close to outer-wall and inner-wall due to solid particles accumulated on the wall surface at dilute fluidization phase. Especially, the voidage near inner-wall falls more than that close to outer-wall. While it is interesting that there is no solids accumulation near the wall surface at emulsion fluidization phase, even a dilute ring forms around the axial direction close to the inner- and outer- wall surface, where the voidage is less than that in center. Superficial gas velocity leads to the variation of averaged bed voidage in the whole column, and an obvious inflection interface formed between fixed region and emulsion regions. The position of this inflection interface in the column falls with decreasing gas velocity. Furthermore, the superficial gas velocity is fixed above the minimum fluidization velocity, an increased solids inventory results in averaged voidage increasing at dilute phase, while decreasing at the fixed section. The voidage is unevenly distributed along the axial direction, which obeys the Boltzmann model corresponding to the bed expansion height, gas velocity and solids inventory. It has been found that the proposed correlation is in good agreement with experimental values of axial voidage.

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Keywords: Voidage Distribution, Fluidization, Annular Photocatalytic Fluidzation Bed, Titania.



go to top   Using Inverse Methods for Parameter Estimation of the Soil Hydraulic Functions
         by Chiraz Bnouni, Jalila Sghaier, Habib Sammouda

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 111-114


Abstract - The description of flow transport through a porous media needs the knowledge of the permeability (k(h)/k(θ)) and water content functions (θ(h)). Traditional techniques for determining θ(h) involve stepwise equilibrium desorption or sorption experiments. k(θ) is often determined by steady state methods. Unfortunately, using the traditional way to determine these functions is often boring and time consuming. Earlier work has demonstrated the feasibility of using the inverse parameter estimation approach in determining these functions. In this work we propose to optimize some parameters of the soil hydraulic functions k(h) and θ(h) of the Van Genuchten’s model, while being based on the results of the multi-step outflow experiments combined with the inverse method. The inverse problem is solved by using the Levenberg-Marquardt minimizing method of the least-squares norm. The results show that the model describes the process of drainage reasonably. The comparison of the measured and optimized values shows an agreement between measured and those optimized.

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Keywords: Porous Media, Hydraulic Functions, Multi-Step Outflow, Parameter Estimation, Inverse Method.



go to top   Techno-Economics of Biodiesel Production Process from High FFA Containing Animal Fat
         by Feroz Kabir Kazi

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 115-117


Abstract - Techno-economic studies have been performed on biodiesel production process from animal fat containing high level of Free Fatty Acid (FFA), nearly 30%, [1]. The plant capacity is assumed 2.89 kg/s (250 metric tons per day) of animal fat. The process is divided into 4 sections: pretreatment and conditioning (Area-100), synthesis (Area-200), product purification (Area-300), and byproduct recovery (Area-400). In Area-100, mineral acid is used to catalytically convert FFA and methanol to methyl esters known as biodiesel. The acid is then recovered and recycled. The residual mineral acid and FFA are neutralized with sodium hydroxide in neutralizing reactors. In synthesis area, triglycerides are converted with methanol to methylesters, and glycerin (a byproduct). Biodiesel and glycerin are separated and recovered in product purification and byproduct recovery sections respectively. The produced biodiesel quality meets biodiesel standard. Glycerin with 80% consistency is recovered and sold as crude glycerin at a price of $0.20/kg [2]. The material and energy balances data are generated by simulating the process in Aspen plus process simulator. The economic analysis is performed on excel spreadsheet. All technical and economic data are obtained from public domain. A discounted cash flow analysis has been performed to obtain the Biodiesel production product value including a 10% internal rate of return [3]. The Total Project Investment (TPI) and the Product Value (PV) are estimated as 17MM$ (million $) and $0.41/lit respectively. The animal fat is assumed available in Malaysia at a price of nearly $0.35/kg. All cost data are expressed in 2009US$ values. The analysis shows that 77% of PV is raw materials and catalyst costs, of which nearly 93% is the animal fat cost alone. Sensitivity analysis has been performed on the critical economic and technical parameters to study their effect on PV. Among the parameters, animal fat price shows a significant impact on the PV. When the fat price varied from 0.10 to $0.50/kg, the PV increased from $0.19/lit to $0.62/lit. The present analysis did not consider in-house utility plant, land prices, and local taxes. However, utility prices, waste treatment and disposal costs are included. (CEAM).

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Keywords: Biodiesel, Animal Fat, Techno-Economics, Product Value, Sensitivity Analysis.



go to top   Simulation of the Production and Use of Hydrogen as Energy in Houses
         by A. Sanchez, A. Cancela, S. Urrejola, R. Maceiras, P. López

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 118-122


Abstract - Hydrogen cannot be considered as a source of energy, since it cannot be obtained directly from nature, like coal or oil, so it is an energy vector. Power generation systems based on fuel cells can cover virtually all the power ranges, which makes them suitable for specific applications, and in many cases flexibility in the fuel can be used for economy and accessibility but also for environmental purposes. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze a complete power generation system using fuel cells for home use, which ranges from the production of hydrogen through electrolysis using electricity produced by photovoltaic panels in order to produce electricity through fuel cells for a single family dwelling.

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Keywords: Simulation, Fuel Cell, PEMFC, Hydrogen Photovoltaic.



go to top   Temperature Effect on Sulfuric Acid Leaching of Galvanic Sludge
         by O. Dere Ozdemir, M. B. Piskin

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 123-124


Abstract - One of the most important problems of the world is industrial wastes. However, a small fraction of these solid wastes contains chemicals that are hazardous to human health and the environment, e.g., lead-based paint, fluorescent lamps, treated wood, and asbestos [1]. Anthropogenic activities, such as mining and industrial processing, vehicle emissions, are the main sources of previous term heavy metal next term contamination in the environment. Under certain conditions, these previous term metals next term may accumulate to a toxic concentration level which can lead to ecological damages [2], [3].
Their transportation, manipulation and disposal of them are in general significant with respect to the total cost of production. For these reasons there is an important interest on developing treatment processes with the aim to recover valuable products from these industrial wastes.
In this paper, the effect of temperature on sulfuric acid leaching of galvanic sludge which is very important in terms of energy cost was studied. And it is found that 50°C was the optimum temperature.

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Keywords: Industrial Waste, Leaching, Galvanic Sludge.



go to top   Non-Isothermal Dehydroxylation Kinetics and Compensation Effect of Tunellite Mineral
         by M. Sari Yilmaz, S. Piskin

           Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 125-127


Abstract - Turkey has an approximately 67% of total world boron reserve in Western Anatolia. Boron minerals in nature take different names such as tincal, colemanite, ulexite, kernite, and tunellite depending on the ratio of boron to sodium, calcium, magnesium, strontium etc. Among these minerals tunellite (SrB6O9(OH)2.3H2O) is a Sr-borate firstly had been found in Eskişehir, Kırka Boron deposits. Tunellite appears in the rhythmic clay and in marl with ulexite and sometimes with kurnakovite and inderite, especially at the floor and on the ceiling at different places of the borate deposits. In this study, dehydroxylation kinetics of tunellite mineral was evaluated by using Coats-Redfern differential method. Sixteen solid-state mechanisms were applied for analyzing the data obtained in the temperature range of 402–712°C. Thermal analysis was carried out at 15°C/min heating rate under nitrogen atmosphere. The possible mechanism of dehydroxylation kinetics was found to be second order chemical reaction. Moreover, for the purpose of validating the dynamic kinetic data, the kinetic compensation effect (or Theta Rule) was determined and a linear correlation was observed between the values of the activation energy and the corresponding pre-exponential factor.

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Keywords: Tunellite, Dehydroxylation, Kinetics, Compensation Effect.



go to top   An Efficient Thermoplastic Composite (TpC) Manufacture for High-Performance Parts: Comparison of Three Liquid Composite Moulding Processes
         by G. Molle, J. A. García, I. Masquelier, J. Andrés

          Vol. 3. n. 1, p. 128-133


Abstract - Although light and performing, common thermosetting-matrix composite material cannot be recycled. Designing thermoplastic-infusion equipment is thus a technological as well as an ecological achievement. The context of the fuel-efficiency competition Eco-Marathon sponsored by Shell is perfectly suited for such an innovation.
Our team is designing a process based on injecting thermoplastic monomer with initiator and activator letting the polymerization occur within the mold and thus avoiding the high viscosity of liquid thermoplastic [1-2].
Choosing the adequate process to produce a high performance composite part is essential. In this paper are compared three LCM processes, the classic Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), the Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion (VARI) and Seeman’s Composite Resin Infusion Molding Process (SCRIMP) using the example of the Shell Eco-Marathon vehicle’s body.
Our parameters of comparison are the quality of the produced part (void content) and the production time. The main issue in composite part quality is the formation of porosity. This entrapment is linked to the fiber tow impregnation and thus to the different liquid velocities within and between these fiber tows. The tow impregnation was taken in account by using an empirical model of evolution of the permeability: the more saturated the tow, the lower the permeability.

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Keywords: RTM, VARI, SCRIMP, Thermoplastic, Finite Elements.


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