Optimization of the Energy Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles via Nonlinear Convex Analysis

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


In recent years, the increment of electrical/electronic elements in vehicles blended with new governmental standards in order to observe more rigorous exhaust gas emission levels has boosted for the introduction of energy control approaches that can assure ideal energy management for any vehicle operative conditions dodging a damaging effect on the power train performances and on the fuel economy, simultaneously. This paper introduces a novel energy management strategy that aims to the reduction of the fuel intake and pollutant emissions in hybrid electric vehicles. In this study, this attempt has been developed as a nonlinear convex optimization matter, based on a precise modeling of the vehicle validated on a commercial automobile. Despite the fact that a power-split hybrid electric vehicle has been examined for the elaboration of the strategy, the adopted procedure is appropriate for all the hybrid formats (parallel, serie-parallel, etc). In this paper, after a full complete characterization of the presented strategy, its legitimacy has been proven on an effective commercial vehicle determining the excellence of the proposal.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Power-split hybrid electric vehicles, energy management, emissions reduction, automotive electric power system

Full Text:



A. Emadi, M. Ehsani, J. M. Miller, Vehicular Electric Power Systems, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2004

NEDC, European Council Directive, 70/220/EEC with amendments.

Liu Shaohua ; Du Changqing ; Yan Fuwu ; Wang Jun ; Li Zheng ; Luo Yuan, A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a New BSG Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Intelligent Systems (GCIS), 2012 Third Global Congress on, Page(s): 209-212

Naderi, P., Samimi, A., Fuel-cell/battery hybrid vehicle modeling and fuzzy controller design for power management, (2012) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 5 (2), pp. 982-990.

Shams-Zahraei, M., Kouzani, A.Z., Ganji, B., Effect of noise factors in energy management of series plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, (2011) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 6 (4), pp. 1715-1726.

Borhan, H.A. ; Vahidi, A. ; Phillips, A.M. ; Kuang, M.L. ; Kolmanovsky, I.V., Predictive energy management of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle, American Control Conference, 2009. ACC '09., Page(s): 3970 - 3976.

Pisu, P. ; Rizzoni, G.,A Comparative Study Of Supervisory Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on, Volume 15 , Issue 3, 2007, Page(s): 506 - 518

M. Mohebbi, M. Charkhgard, M. Farrokhi, Optimal neuro-fuzzy control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles, Vehicle Power and Propulsion, 2005 IEEE Conference, 7-9 Sept. 2005 Page(s):26 – 30.

R. Langari, W. Jong-Seob, Intelligent energy management agent for a parallel hybrid vehicle-part II: Torque Distribution, Charge Sustenance Strategies, and Performance Results, Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 54, Issue 3, May 2005 Page(s):935 – 953.

V. H. Johnson, K. B. Wipke, D. J. Rausen, HEV control strategy for real-time optimization of fuel economy and emissions, SAE Paper 2000-01-1543, 2000.

N. J. Schouten, M. A. Salman, N. A. Kheir, Fuzzy logic control for parallel hybrid vehicles, IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 460–468, May 2002.

Pérez-Pinal, F.J., Kota-Renteria, J.C., Nuñez-Perez, J.C., Al-Mutawaly, N., Hybrid conversion kit applied to public transportation: A taxi case solution, (2013) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 6 (2), pp. 554-559.

R. Langari, W. Jong-Seob, Intelligent energy management agent for a parallel hybrid vehicle-part I: system architecture and design of the driving situation identification process, Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 54, Issue 3, May 2005 Page(s):925 – 934.

S. Delprat, G. Paganelli, T. M. Guerra, J. J. Santin, M. Delhom, E. Combes, Algorithmic optimization tool for the evaluation of HEV control strategies, in Proc. Electric Vehicle Symp. 16, Beijing, China, 1999.

S. Rimaux, M. Delhom, E. Combes, Hybrid vehicle powertrain: modeling and control, in Proc. Elect. Veh. Symp. 16, Beijing, China, Oct. 1999.

A. Brahma, Y. Guezennec, G. Rizzoni, Optimal energy management in series hybrid vehicles, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., Chicago, IL, June 2000.

E. D. Tate, S. P. Boyd, Finding ultimate limits of performance for hybrid electric vehicles, SAE Paper-01-3099, 2000.

C.-C. Lin, H. Peng, J.W. Grizzle, J.-M. Kang, Power management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck, IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 839–849, Nov. 2003.

S. Delprat, J. Lauber, T. M. Guerra, J. Rimaux, Control of a Parallel Hybrid Powertrain: Optimal Control, Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 53, Issue 3, May 2004 Page(s):872 – 881.

M. Koot, J.T.B.A. Kessels, B. de Jager, W.P.M.H. Heemels, P.P.J. van den Bosch, M. Steinbuch, Energy management strategies for vehicular electric power systems, Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 54, Issue 3, May 2005 Page(s):771 – 782.

Cheng-Hong Yang, Member, IAENG, Yu-Huei Cheng, and Li-Yeh Chuang: “PCR-CTPP design based on Particle Swarm Optimization with Fuzzy Adaptive Strategy”, Engineering Letters, vol 20 issue 2, pp196-202, year 2012.

Cyril Dennis Enyi, and Mukiawa Edwin Soh, Modified Gradient-Projection Algorithm for Solving Convex Minimization Problem in Hilbert Spaces, IAENG International Journal of Applied Mathematics, 44:3, p144-150, year 2014.

Grzegorz Koloch, and Bogumil Kaminski: Nested vs. Joint Optimization of Vehicle Routing Problems with Three-dimensional Loading Constraints, Engineering Letters, vol 18, issue 2, pp193-198, year 2010.

Genshun Wan, Xuehua Song, and Riccardo Bettati, An Improved EZW Algorithm and Its Application in Intelligent Transportation Systems, Engineering Letters, vol. 22, issue 2, pp63-69, year 2014.

Hybrid cars, TOYOTA PRIUS web site www.toyota.com/prius/index.html?s_van=GM_TN_HYBRID_PRIUS

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Advanced Vehicle Simulator http://sourceforge.net/projects/adv-vehicle-sim/files/ADVISOR/

P. Setlur, J.R. Wagner, D.M. Dawson, B. Samuels, Nonlinear control of a continuously variable transmission (CVT), Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on, Volume 11, Issue 1, Jan. 2003 Page(s):101 – 108.

J. M. Miller, Hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system architectures of the e-CVT type, Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 21, Issue 3, May 2006 Page(s):756 – 767.

A. Del Pizzo, S. Meo, G. Brando, A. Dannier, F. Ciancetta, An Energy Management Strategy for Fuel-cell Hybrid Electric vehicles via Particle Swarm Optimization approach, (2014) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 7 (4), pp. 543-553.

V. Isastia, S. Meo, F. Esposito, An optimization technique for the choice of advanced automotive electrical systems, The 5th IASTED International Conference on POWER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS ~EuroPES 2005~, June 15-17, 2005, Benalmádena, Spain.

F. Esposito, V. Isastia, S. Meo, Energy management Strategy for Automotive Electric Power System, Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (ISSN 0033-2097), vol. 2006, n. 2, pp. 26-31, Selected paper from International Conference on Power Electronics and Intelligent Control for Energy Conservation, PELINCEC 2005.

S. Boyd, L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization, Cambridge University Press 2004.

Fletcher, R., Practical Methods of Optimization, John Wiley and Sons, 2000.

Schittkowski, K., NLQPL: A FORTRAN-Subroutine Solving constrained Nonlinear Programming Problems, Annals of Operations Research, Vol. 5, pp 485-500, 1985.

T. Coleman, M. A. Branch, A. Grace, Optimization Toolbox User’s Guide, The MathWorks, Inc.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize