Javelin Thrower’s Upper Arm Effect on the Elbow Joint Muscles, Ligaments and Reaction Forces During the Release Stage
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Our understanding of athletic and sports injuries, and sports medicine has grown immensely as we have become more aware of the importance of exercise and team sports. With the increased number of sports and games played, the risk of injury and the number of people affected have increased. Athletic injuries can occur when an individual is careless or not fit enough to undertake sports and games. Athletic injuries result from over stress put on bones or muscles. Most common injuries are soft tissue; muscles, tendons and ligaments injuries. Also, a dislocation occurs when two bones are jolted apart at a joint and is often accompanied by a ligament tear in the joint. This study introduces a three-dimensional dynamic analysis of the human elbow joint during javelin throw using a created mathematical model of the upper arm. The model was used to compare between the muscle, ligament, and reaction forces at the human elbow region of two athletes; a professional one and a beginner. The effect of the trajectory of the thrower's upper limb on the record and on the muscles, ligaments and reaction forces was investigated. The javelin throw distance recorded for the professional subject was twice that of the recorded for the beginner subject. The model results showed that the professional subject depended, mainly, on the upper limb major muscles to achieve his longer throw, while the beginner subject did not, mainly, depend on these muscles. The presented model can be used in choosing the right techniques or training programs by which injuries, for human elbow joint, can be avoided or at least can be minimized.
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