Numerical Modeling of Nanofluid Heat Transfer in a Pipe

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An Eulerian-Eulerian approach by considering the slip velocity between solid and liquid is used to model heat transfer of a nanofluid in a pipe with a circular cross-section. The Brownian diffusion and the thermophoresis are considered as representative of the slip between the phases. For this case, a two-component, four-equation model is considered (two continuity equations, momentum, and energy equations); the well-known k-ε model is used for turbulence modeling. Two different approaches are used to account the thermal turbulence. The first approach, suggests the thermophysical properties of nanofluid as a function of volume fraction of suspended particles only. In this case, the turbulent Prandtl number allows finding the turbulent thermal diffusion coefficient. With the second approach, the nanofluid viscosity is considered to be a function of both the temperature and the volume fraction of the particles. Consequently, increasing in either the Reynolds number or the particle volume fraction, results in augmented convective heat transfer coefficient
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Nanofluid; Brownian Diffusion; Thermophoresis; Turbulent Prandtl Number

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