Determination of Resistance to Earth for Rod Grounding by Use of a Finite Element Method – Application to Benin Grounding System

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Grounding substations are one of the fundamental elements in electrical power supply protection systems for all types of equipments but especially for electronics one which are very sensitive to lightning. Rod grounding is usually used in states like Benin. Grounding resistance is highly depending on field geology and on atmospheric conditions which can change rapidly. So it is interesting to have at disposal a model able to evaluate quickly the grounding conditions. In complementary with approached formulas we propose a more general tool using FEM in 2D or 3D. The validity has been verified in comparison with well known expressions. FEM may be used for more general geometries of the different layers in the soil or with continuous variable resistivity. The Wenner’s method has also been modelled using a 3D FEM. It allows extending the classical two-layer modelling to a three-layer one by linking two two-layer models. It has been verified by using FEM and has been applied to substations in Benin with a sufficient accuracy
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Grounding Substation; Soil Resistivity; Resistance; Analytical Method; Finite Element Method; Wenner’s Method

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