Determination of Resistance to Earth for Rod Grounding by Use of a Finite Element Method – Application to Benin Grounding System

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


Grounding substations are one of the fundamental elements in electrical power supply protection systems for all types of equipments but especially for electronics one which are very sensitive to lightning. Rod grounding is usually used in states like Benin. Grounding resistance is highly depending on field geology and on atmospheric conditions which can change rapidly. So it is interesting to have at disposal a model able to evaluate quickly the grounding conditions. In complementary with approached formulas we propose a more general tool using FEM in 2D or 3D. The validity has been verified in comparison with well known expressions. FEM may be used for more general geometries of the different layers in the soil or with continuous variable resistivity. The Wenner’s method has also been modelled using a 3D FEM. It allows extending the classical two-layer modelling to a three-layer one by linking two two-layer models. It has been verified by using FEM and has been applied to substations in Benin with a sufficient accuracy
Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Grounding Substation; Soil Resistivity; Resistance; Analytical Method; Finite Element Method; Wenner’s Method

Full Text:



S.Houndedako, Identification de la résistivité du sol et de la résistance de prise de terre dans un milieu hétérogène par la méthode des éléments finis, Thèse de Docteur de l’Université d’Abomey-Calavi. Décembre 2000

G.F.Tagg, Earth resistance (Georges Newness, 1964)

P.G.Laurent, Guide sur le calcul, l’exécution et la mesure des prises de terre, RGE T 81 N° 7/8 et n° 9 ,1972

P.Kouteynikoff, Numerical computation of the grounding resistance of substations and towers, IEEE Trans. on PAS vol. PAS-99, n° 1 (May/June 1980), pp. 957-965.

S.Houndedako, K.Chabi-Sika, J.M.Kauffmann, Earth resistivity measurement by Wenner’s method simulation through a three dimensional FEM, 18th IASTED International Conference, February 15-18, 1999 Innsbruck, Austria, pp. 249-252

S.Houndedako, K.Chabi-Sika, J.M.Kauffmann, Equivalent resistivity of multi-layer soil by a finite element method, 19th IASTED International Conference, February 14-17, 2000 Innsbruck, Austria, pp. 389-392

Sarajcev, P., Vujevic, S., Grounding grid analysis: Historical background and classification of methods, (2009) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 4 (4), pp. 670-683.

M.M.Salama, M.M.El Sherbiny, Y.L.Chow, A formula for resistance of substation grounding grid in two-layer soil, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 10, n° 3, pp. 1255-1262. July 1995

Y.L.Chow, M.M.Salama, A simplified method for calculating the substation grounding grid resistance, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 9, n° 2, April 1994, pp. 736-742

F.Dawalibi, N.Barbieto, Measurements and computations of the performance of grounding system buried in multi-layer soils, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 6, 1991, pp. 1483-1490

Slaoui, F.H., Georges, S., Lagace, P.J., Mohanna, Y.M., New inversion method for soil parameters estimation in a horizontal n-Layer structures, (2009) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 4 (2), pp. 284-291.

J.Ma, F.P.Dawalibi, W.K.Daily, Analysis of grounding systems in soils with hemispherical layering , IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 8, n° 4, October 1993 pp. 1773-1781

Y.L.Chow, M.M.Elsherbiny, M.M.Salama, Resistance formulas of grounding systems in two-layer earth, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 11, n° 3 July 1996. pp.1330-1336

J.M.Nahman, V.B.Djordjevic, Resistance to ground of combined grid-multiple rods electrodes, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 11, n° 3, July 1996 pp. 1337-1342

P.J.Lagace, J.Fortin, E.D.Crainic, Interpretation of resistance sounding measurements in N-layer soil using electrostatic images, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 11, n° 3, July 1996 pp. 1349-1354

S.Berberovic, Z.Haznadar, Z.Stih, Method of moments in analysis of grounding systems, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Eléments 27, 11 May 2002 pp 351-360

M.Trlep, A.Hamler, M.Jesenik, B.Stumberger, The FEM-BEM analysis of complex grounding systems, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 39 n° 3 may 2003 pp 1155-1158

M. Nayel, H. Ibaraki, A. Ametani, N. Mori, A study of transient characteristics of two horizontal grounding rods, The science and engineering review of Doshisha University, vol. 44 n° 3 October 2003 pp59-65

R. Zeng, J. He, Y. Gao, J. Zou, Z. Guan, Grounding resistance measurement analysis of grounding system in vertical-layered soil, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 19, n° 4, October 2004 pp. 1553-1559

S.Houndedako, C.Martinez, K.Bedja, J.M. Kauffmann, Synthèse optimale de prise de terre par la structure du sol selon la méthode des éléments finis, Journal des Sciences Pour l’Ingénieur, n° 5/2005 pp 27-33

J.He, Y.Gao, R.Zeng, W.Sun, J.Zou, Z.Guan, Optimal design of grounding system considering the influence of seasonal frozen soil layer, IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, vol30, N°1 January 2005, pp 107-115

M.E.Ghourab, Evaluation of earth resistivity for grounding systems in non uniform soil structure, ETEP 1996, vol. 6, no3, pp. 195-200

F.P.Dawalibi, D.Mukhedkar, Influence of ground-rods on grounding grids, IEEE Trans. Power Appar. a. Syst. PAS 98 (1979) pp 2089-2097


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize