Adaptive Image Watermarking Using Multiple Transforms

S. A. M. Gilani(1*), A. N. Skodras(2)

(1) Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, GIK Institute, Pakistan
(2) School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, Greece
(*) Corresponding author


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Abstract


A novel scheme for the watermarking of color images is presented in this communication. The first objective is to find the most suitable alternative to RGB color space, which is known to be highly correlated. Color spaces linearly related to RGB color space with uncorrelated components are found to be most suitable for watermarking applications. Second objective is to make the scheme adaptive to the color image. This is achieved by keeping the PSNR in a predefined quality range, while tuning the watermark strength. The length of the watermark is kept constant for each of the color channels. In order to select the suitable space for watermark casting each of the color channels is transformed through Discrete Wavelet Transform and then the Discrete Hadamard Transform is applied to the approximations only. By this multiple transformation we are in a position to select the most appropriate coefficients for the watermarking, which are close to the low frequencies and uncorrelated in nature. For increased security the coefficients are randomized by means of a private key. Watermark detection is fast and blind, i.e. only the watermark generation and coefficient randomization keys are needed, and not the original image. The presented results demonstrate the robustness of the method against some common image processing attacks such as compression, scaling, uniform or gaussian noise addition, median filtering, cropping and multiple watermarking. Finally, the proposed scheme is also tested against StirMark benchmark.
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Keywords


Adaptive Watermarking; Color Spaces; DWT; DHT; Multiple Transforms; IPR Protection

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