The Segmentation of Off-line Arabic Characters, Categorization and Review
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)
A successful Arabic character recognition system improves interactivity between the human and the computers in many applications such as: digital archiving of ancient Arabic manuscripts, check verification, and documents analyzing. In spite of this fact, Arabic character recognition has not received enough research. The goal of automating character recognition can not be achieved without solving the segmentation problem. The cursive nature, rotation, strokes variety, and character slanting of Arabic word make the process of character isolation a very difficult one. According to the morphological features, the Arabic characters are connected each another within one word by junction lines. The researchers realized this fact and started publishing methods to solve the problems of the segmentation. These methods are classified in many ways. This paper categorizes the segmentation methods into two approaches: Junction-Seeking Approach (JSA) and Recognize-Segment Approach (RSA) and provides a comprehensive review for segmentation methods in the last 20 years. The contribution also involves analyzing of the preprocessing stage and the techniques that are commonly used in the Arabic character recognition system.
Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.
A. Amin, "Segmentation of Printed Arabic Text", ICAPR 2001, pp. 15-126, 2001.
Richard G., Eric L., "A Survey of Methods and Strategies in Character Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, V. 18, No. 7, pp. 690-706, 1996.
S. Hoskins, From Conflict to Conduit, Print or Printmaking [online], [accessed 12th July 2006], available from the WWW: http://www.impact2003.uct.ac.za
Ahmed M. Zeki, "The Segmentation Problem in Arabic Character Recognition, the State of Art", IEEE Information and Comm. Tech., pp. 11- 26, 2006.
A. Zahour, B. Taconet, M. Mercy, & S. Ramdane, "Arabic handwritten text-line extraction", Proc. Int. Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition, Washington, pp. 281–285, 2001.
S. Mori, H. Nishida and H. Yamada. "Optical Character. Recognition". New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
I. Abuhaiba, S. Mahmoud and R. Green, "Recognition of Handwritten Cursive Arabic Characters", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 16, No 6, pp. 664-672, 1994.
L. Lam, S. W. Lee, and C. Y. Suen, “Thinning methodologies - A comprehensive survey”, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. 14, pp. 869–885, 1992.
J. Peng, "An efficient algorithm of thinning scanned pencil drawings", Journal of Image and Graphics, Vol. 5, No 5, pp. 434-439, 2000.
K. Romeo-Pakker, H. Miled, and Y. Lecourtier, “A New Approach for Latin/Arabic Character Segmentation,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition, pp. 874-877, 1995.
Al-Nassiri A. (2005) "Recognizing Isolated Handwritten Arabic Characters Using Hybrid of Modified Directional Element Feature and General Auto-associative Memory", ACIT2005, AL-Isra University, Jordan.
J. Kanai and A. D. Bagdanov, “Projection profile based skew estimation algorithm for JPIG compressed images,” Int. J. Document Anal. Recognition, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 1998.
M. Pechwitz and V. Maergner. "HMM-based approach for handwritten Arabic word recognition using the IFN/ENIT – database". In ICDAR IEEE Computer Society, pp. 890–894, 2003.
M. Mostafa, "An Adaptive Algorithm for the Automatic Segmentation of Printed Arabic Text", 17th National Computer Conference, Madinah, KSA, pp. 437-444, 2004.
N. Arica and F. T. Y. Vural. "An overview of character recognition focused on off-line handwriting". IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part C: Applications and Reviews, V. 31, No 2, pp. 216-233, 2001.
Amin A. "Off-line Arabic character recognition – a survey". Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Ulm, Germany, pp. 596–599, 1998.
M. Khorsheed, "Off-Line Arabic Character Recognition - A Review", Pattern Analysis & Applications, V. 5, No 1, pp. 31-45, 2002.
B. Parhami and M. Taraghi, Automatic Recognition of Printed Farsi Texts, Pattern Recognition, V. 14, No (1-6), pp. 395-403, 1981.
Ramses R., El-Dabi S., and Kamel A., A system for Arabic character recognition, IBM KSC Technical Report No. 27, January 1988.
T. Sheikh & Guindi, "Computer Recognition of Arabic Cursive Scripts" Pattern Recognition, V. 21, N. 4, pp. 293-302, 1988.
A. Amin and J. Mari, Machine Recognition and Correction of Printed Arabic Text, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics SMC, 19(5), pp. 1300-1306, Sep 1989.
F. El-Khaly and M. A. Sid-Ahmed, Machine Recognition of Optically Captured Machine Printed Arabic Text, Pattern Recognition, 23(11), pp. 1207-1214, 1990.
A. Amin and H. Al-Sadoun, A New Segmentation Technique of Arabic Text, 11th IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition Methodology and Systems (ICPR), The Hague, Netherlands, Vol. 2, pp. 441445, 30 Aug - 3 Sep 1992.
H. Goraine, M. Usher and S. Al-Emami, Off-Line Arabic Character Recognition, IEEE Computer, 25(7), pp. 71-74, Jul 1992.
V. Margner, SARAT - A System for the Recognition of Arabic Printed Text, I1th IAPR International Conference on Pattern Recognition Methodology and Systems (ICPR), Horgue - Netherlands, Vol. 2, pp. 561-564, 30 Aug - 3 Sep, 1992.
M. Altuwaijri and M. Bayoumi, Arabic Text Recognition using Neural Networks, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems ISCAS'94, London, Vol. 6, pp. 415418, 30 May – 2 Jun 1994.
C. Olivier, H. Miled, K. Romeo-Pakker and Y. Lecourtier, "Segmentation and Coding of Arabic Handwritten Words", International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR '96), Vienna, Austria, Vol. 3, pp. 264-268, 25-29 Aug 1996.
Al-Nassiri A. (1996) "An Arabic Character Recognition System Using Freeman Chain" Ph.D thesis, University of Basrah .
D. Motawa, A. Amin and R. Sabourin, "Segmentation of Arabic Cursive Script", 4th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR '97), Ulm, Germany, Vol. 2,pp. 625-628, 18-20 Aug 1997.
M. Fakir, M. Hassani, and C. Sodeyama, "On the Recognition of Arabic Characters Using Hough Transform Technique", Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, 13(2), Dec 2000, pp.39-47.
S. N. Nawaz, M. Sarfraz, A. Zidouri and W. G. Al-Khatib, "An Approach to Offline Arabic Character Recognition Using Neural Networks", Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS 2003), Vol. 3, pp. 1328 - 1331, 2003.
L. Zheng, A. H. Hassin and Z. Tang, "A New Algorithm for Machine Printed Arabic Character Segmentation", Pattern Recognition Letters, 25(15), pp. 1723-1729, 2004.
A. Zidouri, M. Sarfraz, S . A. Shahab, S . M. Jafri, "Adaptive Dissection Based Sub-word Segmentation of Printed Arabic Text," iv, pp. 239-243, Ninth International Conference on Information Visualization (IV'05), 2005.
H. Almuallim and S. Yamaguchi, "A method of recognition of Arabic cursive handwriting", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 9 , Issue 5, September 1987.
N. Ben Amara and N. Ellouze, A Robust Approach for Arabic Printed Character Segmentation, 3rd International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR'95), Montreal, Vol. 2, pp. 865-868, 14-16 Aug 1995.
K. Romeo-Pakker, H. Miled and Y. Lecourtie, A New Approach for Latin/Arabic Character Segmentation, 3rd Inter. Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR'95), Montreal, Canada, Vol. 2, pp. 874-877, 14-16 Aug 1995.
B. Bushofa and M. Spann, "Segmentation of Arabic Characters Using their Contour Information", 13th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing Proceedings (DSP'97), Santorini, Greece, Vol. 2, pp. 683-686, 24 Jul 1997.
K. Mostafa and A.M. Darwish, “Robust Base-Line Independent Algorithms for Segmentation and Reconstruction of Arabic Handwritten Cursive Script,” Proc. IS&T/SPIE Conf. Doc. Recognition and Retrieval VI, vol. 3651, pp. 73-83, 1999.
A. M. Elgammal and M. Ismail, "A Graph-Based Segmentation and Feature Extraction Framework for Arabic Text Recognition", 6th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR), Washington, pp.622-626, 2001.
T. Sari, L. Souici and M Sellami, "Off-line Handwritten Arabic Character Segmentation and Recognition System: ACSA", 8th International Workshop on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition (IWFHR'8), Canada, pp.452-457, 2002.
L. Lorigo and V. Govindaraju, “Segmentation and Pre-Recognition of Arabic Handwriting,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition, pp. 605-609, 2005.
S. Abdulla, A. AL-Nassiri, R. Abdul Salam, "Off-Line Arabic Handwritten Word Segmentation Using Rotational Invariant Segments Features (RISF)", Accepted and to be appeared in IAJIT, Aug. 2008.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Please send any question about this web site to firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2005-2020 Praise Worthy Prize