Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Analysis of Latent and Manifest Variables Using SEM-PLS in the Model of High Performance of Warship

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



In this modern era, warships play an important role in preserving the naval safety of Indonesia from the potential threat of foreign aggression. The research aims to analyze latent and manifest variables by using SEM-PLS in the model of high warship performance, aiming to demonstrate that the adaptation of warship crew and the optimization variables of warships have an impact on the model of high warship performance. This is highly relevant in the context of the development of military technology and national defense strategies. The study utilizes the Partial Least Square (PLS)-Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach based on variance, employing exogenous and endogenous latent variables, and manifest variables. The model under analysis consists of the measurement model, explaining the relationships between latent variables and their indicator variables and the structural model, explaining the relationships between each variable. The latent variables used in the study consist of 3 variables, including 2 exogenous latent variables (X1 and X2) and 1 endogenous latent variable (Y). The manifest variables comprise 15 variables. Based on the measurement model analysis (outer model), it can be explained that the obtained model has met the requirements and exhibits good characteristics, allowing for the progression to the structural analysis stage (inner model). There are 15 manifest variables that have correlations with their latent variables. The results of the structural model analysis (inner model) indicate that the exogenous variables, namely Warship Crew Adaptation (X1) and Warship Optimization (X2), have a strong relationship with the High Performances variable (Y). Through the process of adaptation and high commitment, warship crews can interact with their environment in the form of social relationships. The social relationships of warship crew with technical equipment, including onboard technology within the warship, can be understood through the sociotechnical system existing on the warship. The high performance achieved can be understood through the process of human adaptation to the weapons they operate, including all technical equipment on the warship. The resulting high performance is manifested in a high commitment to readiness and effectiveness in performing tasks and functions.
Copyright © 2024 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Adaptation High Performance; Optimization; Variables; Warship

Full Text:



Sugianto, E., Widjiati, E., Muryadin, M., Widjanarko, B., Experimental Research of Piezoelectricity as Renewable Energy Power Source for Conveyor Electric Motor on Garbage Collection Vessel, (2024) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 12 (1), pp. 24-33.

Irawanto, Z., Ariana, I., Erwandi, E., Low-Cost Ultra Wide-Angle Camera for Motion Tracking in Ship Maneuvering Experiments, (2023) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 11 (2), pp. 89-100.

Iswantoro, A., Semin, S., Pitana, T., Zaman, M., Cahyono, B., Heat Exchanger Simulation for Ballast Water Management Based on Ship Size and Engine Capacity, (2023) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 17 (8), pp. 343-351.

Al Hadidi, M., Al-Azzeh, J., Akhmetov, B., Korchenko, O., Kazmirchuk, S., Zhekambayeva, M., Methods of Risk Assessment for Information Security Management, (2016) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 11 (2), pp. 81-91.

Sunitha, R., Kumar, R., Mathew, A., A Multi-Objective Contingency Constrained Optimal Power Flow Based on Composite Security Index Using Genetic Algorithm and Newton Method, (2013) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 6 (6), pp. 1821-1830.

Jaya, IGNM dan Sumertajaya, IM, 2008. Structural equation modeling with partial least square. Semnas Matematika dan Pendidikan Matematika, 1 , pp. 118-132.

Sugiyono. 2010. Educational Research Methods Quantitative, Qualitative and Approaches, and R&D. Bandung:Alfabeta.

Solichin, M., Ratmono, D. (2013). Analysis SEM-PLS With Warppls 3.0 for Nonlinear Relationships in Social and Business Research. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi.

Geladi, P., & Kowlaski B. (1986). Partial least square regression: A tutorial. Analytica Chemica Acta, 35, 1-17.

Dwisetiono, D., Marjono, M., Wike, W., Wahyudi, S., Latent and Manifest Variables of the PLS-SEM Model Used in Measuring the Effect of Production Facilities Layout Re-Planning in Shipyard Support Manufacturing Companies, (2023) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 16 (4), pp. 227-236.

Mustamiah, D., Harahap, N., Marjono, M., Tarno, H., Development of Planned Behavior Theory in Increasing Awareness of the Marine Environment in Students, (2023) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 11 (3), pp. 143-151.

Musianto, L.S., 2004. "The difference between a quantitative approach and a qualitative approach in research methods". Dalam Jurnal Manajemen dan kewirausahaan, 4(2), 123-136.

Azwar, S. (2013). Reliability and Validity. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Ghozali, I. (2008). Structural Equation Modeling: Metode Alternatif dengan Partial Least Square (PLS). Semarang: Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Haryono, S, 2016. SEM Methods for Management Research with AMOS, LISREL, PLS. Bekasi: PT Intermedia Personalia Utama.

Nurwullan, E. and Suharno, N.T., 2015. Application of Partial Least Square in Testing the Implications of Cooperation and Innovation Networks for Soybean Processing Micro and Small Enterprises.

Mustamiah, D., Harahab, N., Marjono, M., Tarno, H., Heterogeneity in the Association Marine Environmental Awareness: an Approach of Structural Equation Modeling, (2023) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 17 (7), pp. 295-304.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., dan Sarstedt, M. 2011. PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, Vol. 1. No. 2, 139-152.

Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty-Safety And Shipping Review. 2020.

Wahyono S.K., (2009) Indonesia is a maritime country. Jakarta.

Ritzer, George. (2011). Dual Paradigm Sociology of Science. (Jakarta: PT.Rajagrafindo Persada. 21.

Boyatzis, Richard, E. (2008). Competencies in The 21st Century. Journal of Management Development. Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. 5-12.

Ivancevich, John M., et al., (2014). Organizational Behavior and Management. 10th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Rosana, N., Harahab, N., Ciptadi, G., Kurniawan, A., Rifandi, S., Mukminin, A. dan Prasita, VD, PLS-SEM Model Latent and Manifest Variables in Sound Decision Making PIKNET Wave-Based Towing Innovation by Fishermen in Bulak District, Surabaya, Indonesia. Jurnal Sains & Teknologi Pertanika, Vol. 31 Nomor 1 Tahun 2023, pp.373-388.

Zaman, M., Priyanta, D., Siswantoro, N., Implementation of AIS for Ship's Collision Analysis: Case Study, (2020) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 8 (6), pp. 249-255.

Santoso, A., Semin, S., Sampurno, B., Cahyono, B., Zaman, M., New Development of Piston Crown for Dual Fuel Diesel Engine to Improve Efficiency and Reduce NOx Emissions: a Review, (2020) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 8 (1), pp. 1-7.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize