Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Numerical Study of Effect of Operating Conditions on Hydrogen Crossover Through Perforated PFSA Membrane

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



In this work, a three-dimensional monophasic mass transport PEMFC model has been established in order to investigate the gas pressure distribution and to quantify the hydrogen crossover through the Nafion PEM side. The model is performed using finite element approach under a commercial software platform. The effects of anodic inlet gas pressure and membrane pinhole location have been investigated. In addition, the hydrogen flow rate by permeation and the hydrogen flow rate leak across the pinhole have been estimated at different reaction rate values and pinhole sizes. The results show that the hydrogen crossover distribution is inhomogeneous. It begins with a strong increase in the inlet channel side, and ends with a large decrease in the outlet channel. The effect of variation of inlet gas pressure on hydrogen crossover is stronger in comparison with that due to the variation of pinhole size or functioning temperature, especially in case of high reaction rate. In addition, the presence of pinhole favors a slightly increase in hydrogen flow rate across the membrane at the outlet channel side.
Copyright © 2022 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Fuel Cell; Gas Permeability; Gas Crossover; Nafion; Membrane Pinhole

Full Text:



J. Shan, P. Gazdzicki, R. Lin, M. Schulze, K.A Friedrich, Local resolved investigation of hydrogen crossover in polymer electrolyte fuel, Energy (June 2017), ID/73577153.

P.Rama, R. Chen, J. Andrews, A review of performance degradation and failure modes for hydrogen fulled polymer electrolyte fuel cells, Proceedings of the I MECH part A: J. of power and Energy, 222(5), 421-41, 2008.

A. Stähler, F.Scheepers, M. Carmo, W. Lehnert, D. Stolten, Impact of porous transport layer compression on hydrogen permeation in PEM water electrolysis, Energy, Volume 45, Issue 7, 7 February 2020, Pages 4008-4014.

A. Niroumand, H. Homayouni, In-situ diagnostic tools for hydrogen transfer leak characterization in PEM fuel cell stacks part III: Manufacturing applications, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 448, 1 February 2020, Article number 227359.

T. Skai, H. Takenaka, E. Torikai E., Gas diffusion in the dried and hydrated Nafion, J. Electrochem. Soc., 1986, 133, 88-92.

M. Inaba, T. Kinumoto, M. Kiriake, Umebayashi R., A. Tasaka, Z. Ogumi, Gas crossover and membrane degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, Electrochimica Acta 2006, 51(26), 5746-53.

S. Zhongying, Xia Wang, A numerical study of flow crossover between adjacent flow channels in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with serpentine flow field, Journal of Power Sources, 185 (2008) 985-992.

Traoré, B., Doumiati, M., Olivier, J., Morel, C., Adaptive Power Sharing Algorithm Combined with Robust Control for a Multi-Source Electric Vehicle: Experimental Validation, (2022) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 17 (1), pp. 39-53.

C. Francia, S. V. Ijeri, S. Specchia, P. Spinelli, Estimation of hydrogen crossover through Nafion membranes in PEMFCs, J. Power Sources, 196(2011), 1833-1839.

W. Koros, D.R. Paul, Design considerations for measurement of gas sorption in polymers by pressure decayé , Journal of Polym Sci Pol Phys., 1976, 14, 1903-1907.

Espinel Blanco, E., Romero Garcia, G., Florez Solano, E., PID Control System Applied to a Hybrid Electric Power Generation System with Hydrogen, (2020) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 13 (4), pp. 182-190.

Ciancetta, F., Ometto, A., D'Ovidio, G., Masciovecchio, C., Modeling, Analysis and Implementation of an Urban Electric Light-Rail Train Hydrogen Powered, (2019) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 14 (4), pp. 237-245.

Adam, K., Miyauchi, H., Optimization of a Photovoltaic Hybrid Energy Storage System Using Energy Storage Peak Shaving, (2019) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 14 (1), pp. 8-18.

Ravichandran, A., Storey, J., Kirk, D., A Thermo-Fluid Model of Droplet Evaporation and Pressure Variation in Venturi Liquid-Gas Mixers, (2020) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 13 (3), pp. 108-119.

Srivastava, A., Bajpai, R., Model Predictive Control of Renewable Energy Sources in DC Microgrid for Power Flow Control, (2021) International Journal on Energy Conversion (IRECON), 9 (4), pp. 176-190.

N. Yousfi-Steiner, Ph. Moçotéguy, D. Candusso, D. Hissel, A review on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell catalyst degradation and starvation issues: Causes, consequences and diagnostic for mitigation, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 194, Issue 1, 2009, Pages 130-145.

Shanna D Knights, Kevin M Colbow, Jean St-Pierre, David P Wilkinson, Aging mechanisms and lifetime of PEFC and DMFC, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 127, Issues 1-2, 2004, Pages 127-134.

A. Kusoglu and A. Z. Weber, New Insights into Perfluorinated Sulfonic-Acid Ionomers, Chemical Reviews, 117, 987 (2017).

S. Kreitmeier, M. Michiardi, A. Wokaun, and F. N. Büchi, Factors determining the gas crossover through pinholes in polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes, Electrochimica Acta, 80, 240 (2012).

H. Ito, N. Miazaki, M. Ishida, A. Nakano, Cross-permeation and consumption of hydrogen during proton exchange membrane electrolysis, Intern Journal of hydrogen Energy, 2016; 41(45), 20439-46.

X. Cheng, J. L. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. J. Song, J. Shen, D. T. Song, J. Zhang, Hydrogen crossover in high-temperature PEM fuel cells, J. Power Sources, 2007, 167, 25-31.

B. Bensmann, R. Hanke-Rauschenbach, K. Sundmacher, In-situ measurement of hydrogen crossover in polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 39, Issue 1, 2014, Pages 49-53.

R. Omrani, B. Shabani, An analytical model for hydrogen and nitrogen crossover rates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Int J. Hydrogen Energy, 45(2020), 31040-31055.

Aeri Jung, Im Mo Kong, Chae Young Yun, Min Soo Kim, Characteristics of hydrogen crossover Through Pinhole In Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, Journal of Membrane Science, 523(2017), 138-143.

W. Gu, D. B. Baker, Y. Liu, H. A. Gasteiger, Proton exchange membrane fuel cell(PEMFC) down-the-channel performance model, in Handbook of fuel cells, Jhon wilev and son, Ltd, chichester, UK, 2010.

E. N. Fuller, P. D. Schettler, and J.C. Giddings, New method for prediction of binary gas-phase diffusion coefficients, Ind. Eng. Chem. 1966, 58, 5, 18-27.

V. Gurau, H. Liu, S. Kakac, Two dimensional model for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, AIChE J., 44 (1998), pp. 2410-2422.

J. T. Gostick, M. W. Fowler, M. D. Pritzker, Ioannidis M. A, Behra L. M, In-Plane and through-plane gas permeability of carbon fiber electrode backing layers, Journal of Power Sources, 162, 228-38, 2006.

M.M. Tomakadis, T. J. Robertson, Viscous Permeability of Randon Fiber Structures: Comparison of Electrical and Diffusional Estimates with Experimental and analytical Results, Journal of composite Materials, 39(2), 163-88, 2005.

Shalenbach M, Carmo M, Fritz DL, Mergel J, Stolten D, Pressurized PEM water electrolysis : efficiency and gas crossover, Int J Hydrogen Energy, 2013, 38 (35), 14921-33.

K. Broka, P. J. Eknuge, Oxygen and hydrogen permeation properties and water uptake of Nafion 117 membrane and recast film for PEM fuel cell, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 27, 117-123, (1997).

Paul W. Majsztrik, Andrew B. Bocarsly, and Jay B. Benziger, Visco-elastic response of Nafion. Effects of Temperature and hydration on tensile creep, Macromolecules 2008, 41, 24, 9849-9862.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize