Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Smooth 2D Navigation in Hazardous Areas Utilizing a GA-PID Controlled Omnidirectional Mobile Robot with Kinematic Constraint Consideration

Wafa Batayneh(1*), Yusra Aburmaileh(2), Mohammad Adeeb(3), Assem Al-Karasneh(4)

(1) Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
(2) Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
(3) Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
(4) Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
(*) Corresponding author



Given the increase use of modern technology in today’s life, many facility appliances provide efficient ways to protect human from hazardous work areas, such as explosives, and nuclear plants. This paper proposes a four omnidirectional-wheels mobile robot based on a Mecanum wheel that can navigate smoothly taking into consideration the kinematic constraint. In this research, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for two purposes. First, GA-PID controller is used, where a PID controller is tuned using GA. Second, the kinematic constraint of the motor’s speed is taken into consideration using GA controller. GA finds the appropriate robot velocity that requires about 90% of the rated maximum motor’s speed. In order to evaluate the performance of the developed robot and its controller, MATLAB is used to verify the robustness of the optimized GA-PID controller taking into consideration the motors’ speeds. The error and the robot motors’ speeds are calculated utilizing MATLAB simulation on different complex shapes and the result shows that the robot can smoothly navigate complex shapes without exceeding the rated maximum motors speed.
Copyright © 2021 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Controller Constraint; GA-PID; Kinematic Constraint; Mecanum Wheel; Navigation; Omnidirectional-Wheels Robot

Full Text:



W. Farag, Complex Trajectory Tracking Using PID Control for Autonomous Driving, International Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 356–366, Sep. 2019.

I. Swadexi, U. Rudi, and N. Heriansyah, Autodrive Land Vehicle Control by Using PID, Journal of Science and Application Technology, vol. 2, no. 1, 2019.

Ali, M., Hassan, M., Modeling and Control of Combined Cycle Gas Turbines Using Rowen’s and Vournas’s Models, (2013) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 6 (3), pp. 994-1004.

P. Wu, K. Wang, J. Zhang, and Q. Zhang, Optimal Design for PID Controller Based on DE Algorithm in Omnidirectional Mobile Robot, MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 95, p. 08014, 2017.

A. Haytham, Y. Z. Elhalwagy, A. Wassal, and N. M. Darwish, Modeling and simulation of four-wheel steering unmanned ground vehicles using a PID controller, 2014 International Conference on Engineering and Technology (ICET), Apr. 2014.

A. S. Al-Araji, A Cognitive PID Neural Controller Design for Mobile Robot based on slice genetic algorithm,” Engineering and Technology Journal, vol. 33(1 Part (A) Engineering), p. 208-222, 2015.

Y. Qin, G. Zhao, Q. Hua, L. Sun, and S. Nag, Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm-Based Optimization of PID Controller Parameters for Fuel Cell Voltage and Fuel Utilization, Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 12, p. 3290, Jun. 2019.

D. C. Meena and A. Devanshu, Genetic algorithm tuned PID controller for process control, 2017 International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC), Jan. 2017.

Z. Wang, X. Ran, B. Zhao, and J. Zhao, GA Tuning PID Controller Based on Second-order Time-delay Industrial System, MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 288, p. 01009, 2019.

Q. Wang, S.-Z. Xu, and H.-L. Xu, A Fuzzy Control Based Self-Optimizing PID Model for Autonomous Car Following on Highway, 2014 International Conference on Wireless Communication and Sensor Network, Dec. 2014.

E. Hashemi, M. Ghaffari Jadidi, and N. Ghaffari Jadidi, Model-based PI–fuzzy control of four-wheeled omni-directional mobile robots, Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 930–942, Nov. 2011.

X. Du, K. K. K. Htet, and K. K. Tan, Development of a Genetic-Algorithm-Based Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Scheme on Velocity and Steering of Autonomous Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 6970–6977, Nov. 2016.

W.G. Han, S. M. Baek, and T.Y. Kuc, Genetic algorithm based path planning and dynamic obstacle avoidance of mobile robots, 1997 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Computational Cybernetics and Simulation.

Humaidi, A., Oglah, A., Abbas, S., Ibraheem, I., Optimal Augmented Linear and Nonlinear PD Control Design for Parallel Robot Based on PSO Tuner, (2019) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 12 (5), pp. 281-291.

Ilon BE, Directionally stable self-propelled vehicle, P.3746112. (U.S., 1973).

Caceres, C., Rosário, J., Amaya, D., Design, Simulation, and Control of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot, (2018) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 12 (4), pp. 382-389.

L. Xie, K. Stol, and W. Xu, Energy-Optimal Motion Trajectory of an Omni-Directional Mecanum-Wheeled Robot via Polynomial Functions, Robotica, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1400–1414, Nov. 2019.

T. Peng, J. Qian, B. Zi, J. Liu, and X. Wang, Mechanical Design and Control System of an Omni-directional Mobile Robot for Material Conveying, Procedia CIRP, vol. 56, pp. 412–415, 2016.

M. R. Azizi, A. Rastegarpanah, and R. Stolkin, Motion Planning and Control of an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot in Dynamic Environments, Robotics, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 48, Mar. 2021.

W. Li, C. Yang, Y. Jiang, X. Liu, and C.-Y. Su, Motion Planning for Omnidirectional Wheeled Mobile Robot by Potential Field Method, Journal of Advanced Transportation, vol. 2017, pp. 1–11, 2017.

N. Hacene and B. Mendil, Motion Analysis and Control of Three-Wheeled Omnidirectional Mobile Robot, Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 194–213, Jan. 2019.

W. Batayneh and Y. AbuRmaileh, Decentralized Motion Control for Omnidirectional Wheelchair Tracking Error Elimination Using PD-Fuzzy-P and GA-PID Controllers, Sensors, vol. 20, no. 12, p. 3525, Jun. 2020.

Braunl, Thomas. Embedded Robotics: Mobile Robot Design and Applications with Embedded Systems. Springer, 2006.

Batayneh, W., Aburmaileh, Y., Bataineh, A., Experimental Implementation of Tracking Error Elimination for Omnidirectional Wheelchair Using PD-Fuzzy-P Controller, (2021) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 14 (2), pp. 102-112.

Alnema, Y., Alsabawee, A., Ahmed, J., MRAC Based PID Controller Design with Genetic Algorithm for a Single Joint Robot Arm, (2021) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 9 (2), pp. 86-93.

George, R., Hasanien, H., Al-Durra, A., Badr, M., Model Predictive Controller for Performance Enhancement of Automatic Voltage Regulator System, (2018) International Journal on Energy Conversion (IRECON), 6 (6), pp. 208-217.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize