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Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of Various Types of Rocket Engine Nozzles

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The nozzle is an element of the rocket engine in which the potential energy of gases generated during combustion is converted into the kinetic energy of the gas flow. The design parameters of the nozzle have a decisive influence on the ballistic characteristics of the engine. Designing a nozzle assembly is therefore one of the most responsible stages in developing a rocket engine design. The paper presents the results of the simulation of three types of rocket propulsion nozzles. Calculations were made using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) in ANSYS Fluent software. The analyzed types of nozzles differ in shape. The analysis referred to conical nozzle, a bell type nozzle with a conical supersonic part and a bell type nozzle. Calculation results are presented as pressure, velocity, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy viscosity distributions in the longitudinal section. The results show that the cone nozzle generates strong turbulence in the critical section, which negatively affects the flow of the working gas. In the case of a bell nozzle, the transformation of the wall caused the elimination of flow disturbances in the critical section, which reduced the probability of waves that can form before or after the trailing edge. The most sophisticated construction, the bell-type nozzle, allows for maximizing performance without adding extra weight. The bell type nozzle can be used as a starter and auxiliary engine nozzle due to its advantages.
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CFD; Nozzle; Rocket Engine; Simulation; Thermodynamics

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