Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Numerical Modelling of the Contaminated Former Black Fuel Storage Area Effect in Latvia: a Case Study

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



In the town Valmiera of Latvia, the abandoned former black fuel storage area was not inspected before on the area contamination and its effect on the quality of groundwater at the storage environs. In 2016-2017, the storage area was investigated. In 2017, the quality of groundwater in the area environs was estimated and the oil contamination migration was explored by means of numerical modelling. The local hydrogeological model was developed jointly by specialists of the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre and Riga Technical University. The model was created by extracting information from the HM of Latvia LAMO4 and by supplying and reshaping its regional data by detailed information on the model area. The results of modelling ensure that in the closest storage area environs the groundwater quality has been only slightly worsened and no pollution of the nearby river should happen. Methods of developing and using the local hydrogeological and contaminant migration models may be useful for specialists dealing with groundwater contamination problems.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Contaminated Groundwater; Dissolved Oil Products; Hydrogeological Model; Modelling Of Contaminant Migration

Full Text:



T. Hermans, Preduction-focused approaches an opportunity for hydrogeology, Groundwater 55, 2017, pp. 683-687.

EU projects INSURE, Newsletter 2, February 2017.

P. Birzgalis. Report on geological research in the Valmiera former black fuel storage area VKB, Inc., 2016, 20 pages (in Latvian).

Spalvins, A., Slangens, J., Lace, I., Aleksans, O., Krauklis, K., Improvement of Hydrogeological Models: a Case Study, (2015) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 8 (2), pp. 265-276.

A. Spalvins, J. Slangens, I. Lace, O. Aleksans, K. Krauklis, V. Skibelis, I. Eglite, The Novel Updates of the Hydrogeological Model of Latvia, Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University, Boundary Field Problems and Computer Simulation, RTU Press, Riga, 2015, vol. 54, pp. 23-34.

Environmental Simulations, Inc., Groundwater Vistas. Version 6, Guide to using, 2011.

A.W. Harbaugh, MODFLOW-2005, U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model: the ground-water flow process, chap 16, book 6, US Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A16, USGS, Reston, VA. 2005.

Pollok D. W. User‘s Guide for MODPATH/MODPATH-Plot, Version3. A particle tracking post-processing package for MODFLOW, the US Geological Survey finite-difference groundwater flow model, U.S. Geological survey, September 1994

Zheng C. MT3D99 A modular three dimensional transport model for simulation of advection, dispersion and chemical reactions of contaminants in groundwater systems. USEPA report, USEPA, Washington, DC., 1999

Golden Software, Inc., SURFER-12 for Windows, Users manual, Guide to Using, 2015.

M. Anderson, W. Wossner, R. Hunt, Applied Groundwater Modeling, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, Cambridge, 2015, pp 630

Digital relief map prepared by the Latvian Geospatial Information Agency, 2017

E. Bresciani, T. Gleeson, P. Goderniaux, J.R. de Dreuzy, A.D. Werner, A. Worman, W. Zijl, O. Batelaan, Groundwater flow systems theory: research challenges beyond the specified-head top boundary condition, Hydrogeological Journal, (2016) 24:1087-1090, Vol. 24, Number 5, August 2016, 24: pp. 1087-1090.

H. M. Haitjema, S. Mitchell –Bruker, Are water tables a subdued replica of the topography? Groundwater, Vol. 43, Issue 6, November 2005, pp. 781-786.

MJ. Stewardson, T. Datry, N. Lamouroux, N. Thommeret, L.Valette, SB. Grant, Variation in reach-scale hydraulic conductivity of streambeds, Geomorphology 259, 2016. pp. 70-80.

A. Spalvins, I. Lace, K. Krauklis, Making of creditable permeability maps for layers of hydrogeological model of Latvia, 30-th European Conference on Modelling and Simulation, May 31-June 03, 2016, Regensburg, Germany, Printed by Digitaldruck Pirrot GmbH 66125 Sbr.-Dudweiler, Germany pp.66-72

J. Zhu, Sensitivity of contaminant travel time to the combined effect of porosity and hydraulic conductivity, Hydrogeology Journal, volume 27, Number 2, March 2019, , Springer, pp. 615-623

R. Mokrik, V. Juodkazis, A. Stuopis, and J. Mazeika, Isotope geochemistry and modelling of the multi-aquifer system in the eastern part of Lithuania, Hydrogeology journal, vol. 22, 2014, pp. 925–941.

K. Krauklis, A. Spalvins, J. Slangens, The Hydrogeological Model of Latvia LAMO4 as a Tool for Investigating the Processes of Nature. Sources of Groundwater Inflow for the Iecava River, Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University, Boundary Field Problems and Computer Simulation, RTU Press, Riga, 2015, vol. 54, pp. 43-50.

I. Bica, MA. Boukhemacha, G. Groza, A semi-analytical solution for groundwater flow-field delineation near pumping/injection wells in confined aquifers, Hydrogeology Journal, volume 27, Number 1, February 2019, Springer, pp. 61-71.

C. W. Fetter, Applied hydrogeology, Waveland press, Long Grove IL, 2018, pp 510

Z. Wang, M. Fingas, M. Landriault, L. Sigouln, and N. Xu, Identification of Slkybenzenes and Direct Determination of BTEX and (BTEX+C3-Benzenes) in Oils by GC/MS, Analytical Chemistry, vol. 67, No 19, October, 1995, pp. 3491-3500

S. Mitra and P.Roy, BTEX: A Serious Ground-water Contaminant. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, December, 2010, 5: 394-398.

E. R. Weiner, Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry. A Practical guide, CRC Press, 2007, 400 p

Latvian Cabinet of Ministers. Regulations No. 118. of March 12, 2002 Water quality standards for groundwater status assessment and requirements for groundwater treatment in contaminated sites, (in Latvian).

M. Bastani, T. Harter, Effects of upscaling temporal resolution of groundwater flow and transport boundary conditions on the performance of nitrate-transport models at the regional management scale, Hydrogeology Journal, volume 28, Number 4, June 2020, Springer, pp. 1299-1322.

Z. Guo, G.E. Fogg, M.L. Brusseau, E.M. LaBolle, J. Lopez, Modeling groundwater contaminant transport in the presence of large heterogeneity: a case study comparing MT3D and RWhet, , Hydrogeology Journal, volume 27, Number 4, June 2020, , Springer, pp. 1363-1371.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize