Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment from Mobile Phones Based on Call-Related Factors

Joseph Isabona(1*), Viranjay M. Srivastava(2)

(1) Department of Electronic Engineering, Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
(2) Department of Electronic Engineering, Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
(*) Corresponding author


DOI: https://doi.org/10.15866/iremos.v10i5.11200

Abstract


For many years, there have been concerns about possible human health risks connected to the usage of mobile phones especially at close proximity. This is primarily due to the exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) radiations that emanate from them. These concerns have in turn provoked a large bulk of research studies. However, the conflicting reports of previous research works on the effect of the exposure to EMF sources lead researchers to continue studying the issue. In this work, by means of the exposure evaluation technique, measurements of EMF radiations, in terms of power density, are conducted on different models of mobile phones in an indoor environment via the call-related factors: between the dial and reception of a call from different models of mobile phones, for a period of six months. The investigated brands of mobile phones were all placed to face the field strength meter sensor in active call modes at 0.05m measurement interval when taking reading on the tri-axis planes. The results obtained revealed that the EMF radiation intensity, in terms of measured power density from the mobile phone, varies and depends on the mobile phone model brand. It ranges from 1.25 to 800.5 mW/m2 with the highest from ITEL phone (Model-TI65800) with MTN Network along the Z-plane and the lowest from NOKIA phone (Model-105) with MTN Network along the Y-plane. The highest radiation intensity was recorded for calls made during the dial (before picking) from all the selected mobile phone models. In particular, from the results, it was observed that the amount of EMF radiations decreased about 20 to 30 % if the mobile phone handset is moved away from the EMF meter from 1cm to 5cm. Accordingly, for EMF exposure safety, it is recommended that the mobile phone is placed 5–10 cm away from the body during conversation.
Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.

Keywords


Mobile Phones; Electromagnetic Field; Radiation Exposure Level; Radiation Intensity; Human Health; Power Density

Full Text:

PDF


References


World Health Organization (WHO). Extremely Low Frequency Fields, Environmental Health Criteria 238. Geneva, Switzerland, (2007).

World Health Organization (WHO). Electromagnetic Fields (300 Hz to 300 GHz), Environmental Health Criteria 137. Geneva, Switzerland, (1993).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/0007-1285-68-807-336-b

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields, biological effects and health consequences (100 kHz-300 GHz). Munich, Germany, (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004032-200303000-00016

Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Possible Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) on Human Health. European Commission, Health & Consumer Protection DG, Directorate C: Public Health and Risk Assessment. Brussels, Belgium, (2007).

Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Health Effects of Exposure to EMF. European Commission, Health & Consumer Protection DG, Directorate C: Public Health and Risk Assessment. Brussels, Belgium, (2009).

Advisory Group on Non-ionizing Radiation (AGNIR). Health Effects from Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RCE 20). Chilton, United Kingdom, 2012. ISBN 9780859517140.

Salford, L. G.,Brun, A. E., Eberhardt, J. L., Malmgren L, and Persson B. R.Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environmental Health Perspect.111 (7):881 – 883, (2003).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.6039

F. Adlkofer, Final Report, Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods. EU Contract number QLK4-CT-1999-01574, (2004)

E. Odaci, O. Bas, S. Kaplan, Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz Electromagnetic field on the dentate Gyrus of Rats: a Stereological and Hstopathological study, Brain Reserach 1238:224 – 229, (2008).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.08.013

S. Sadetzki, A. Chetrit, A. Jarus-Hakak, Sadetzki,, S. Chetrit, A. Jarus-Hakak, E. Cardis, Y.Deutch, S.Duvdevani, A. Zultan, I.Novikov, L. Freedman and M. W. Cellular phone use and risk of benign and malignant parotid gland tumors—a nationwide case-control study, America Journal Epidemiology, Vol. 167, pp. 457-467(2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwm325

C. Schwarz, E. Kratoclivil, A, Pilger, F.Kuster, H.W. Adlkofer, Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS, 1, 950 MHz) induce genotoxic effects in vitro in human fibroblasts but not in lymphocytes. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 81(6):755-67, 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-008-0305-5

A. Tomruk, G. Guler, A. S. SepiciDincel,. The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits. Cell Biochem. Biophys 56:39 – 47, (2008).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12013-009-9068-1

G. Guler, E. Ozgur, H. Keles, and S.Nesrin, Apoptosis resulted from radiofrequency radiation exposure of pregrant rabbits and their infants. Bulletin- Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 55(1):127-134, (2011).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2015.10.006

N. B Muluk,G. G. Budak, B. Budak, A. Apan, G. G, Ozturk, N. Seyhan, Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in infant, pregnant and non-pregnant adult rabbits: comparison for different stimulus levels. The Journal of Advanced International Otology.7 (1): 102 – 110, (2011).
http://dx.doi.org/10.25011/cim.v32i2.6028

J. Schuz, R, Jacobsen, J.H Olsen, J.D Boice, J.K McLaughlin, C. Johansen, "Cellular Telephone Use and Cancer Risk: Update of a Nationwide Danish Cohort". Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 98 (23): 1707–1713, 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djj464

Myers, “ELF exposure has no effects," ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 8(3):289-320, (1990).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/98188.98204

O. Zeni, A. Schiavoni, A. Perrotta, D. Forigo, M. Deplano, M.R Scarfi, “Evaluation of genotoxic effects in human leukocytes after in vitro exposure to 1950 MHz UMTS radiofrequency field,” Bioelectromagnetics, 29:177-184, (2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.20378

H. Kleinlogel, T Dierks , T, Koenig, H. Lehmann, A. Minder, R. Berz, “Effects of weak mobile phone - Electromagnetic fields (GSM, UMTS) on event related potentials and cognitive functions,” Bioelectromagnetics, 29:488-497, (2008).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.20418

T. Silke, A.Kuhnlein, S. Heinrich, G. Praml, D. Nowak, V.K Rudigerand K. Radon, “Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: A cross-sectional study based on dosimetry,” Bioelectromagnetics, 29:463-470, (2008).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.20414

O. Wilson, K. Robert, J. Mutuku and C. Ogoongo, Monitoring of Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure from Selected Telephones in Kenya, Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal, vol. 1, pp. 5-13, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2016232

ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) "Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz"), (1998).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/hp.0b013e3181aff9db

H. Mazar, A global survey and comparison of different regulatory approaches to non-ionizing RADHAZ and spurious emissions, IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronics Systems, COMCAS, 9-11 Nov. (2009).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/comcas.2009.5385938

Loan E. M. and Craudiu, Assessment of HF-Radiation impacts levels within the residential area of Craiova City, Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol.32, pp 177-183, (2016).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.03.022

O.D. Ojuh and Isabona, J (2015) ‘‘Radio Frequency EMF Exposure due to GSM Mobile Phone Base Stations: Measurement and Analysis in Nigerian Environment, Nigeria Journal of Technology, Vol. 34, Issue-4, pp 809-814, (2015).
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njt.v34i4.20

Isabona. J and Adesanya, I (2015) Quantitative Estimation of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure in the Vicinity of Base Transceiver Stations via in-situ Measurements Approach, Journal of Applied Science And Research, 3 (2): 28-40, (2015).
http://dx.doi.org/10.3403/30155010

International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields and Wireless Technology, http://www.saferemr.com/2015/06/international-scientist-appeal-on.html (Accessed 29th July, (2016)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0262-4079(13)61252-x

Sghaier, N., Latrach, L., Gharsallah, A., Analysis and Optimization of a PIFA Antenna Radiation Performance in the Presence of a User, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (6), pp. 362-366.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15866/irecap.v5i6.7818


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2022 Praise Worthy Prize