Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Adaptive Feedforward Control of an Industrial H-Drive Positioning with Permanent Magnet Linear Motors

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Adaptive feedforward method for an industrial permanent magnet linear motor H-drive application is presented. Industrial H-drives consist of two parallel linear motors in the X-direction connected mechanically together through an intermediate beam with a third linear motor in the Y-direction. H-drives can have a remarkable backlash, and the assembly may have different mechanical parameters such as different air gaps making the motors behave differently. Because of these non-idealities the control of the H-drive with a traditional fully linear controller becomes difficult and inaccurate. Feedforward controllers are commonly used to increase the performance of the linear motor drives, but precise parameters are essential for achieving high tracking performance and positioning accuracy of the system with feedforward terms. However, the parameters, like the friction of the mover, can change during operation and reduce the effectiveness of the feedforward control. For this purpose a new, easily applicable adaptive feedforward for the H-drive application is developed and suggested. The experimental results given verify the increased position accuracy during highly dynamic movements with the proposed adaptive feedforward method compared to regular feedforward with constant parameters.
Copyright © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Permanent Magnet Linear Motor; Feedforward Control; Adaptive; H-Drive

Full Text:



Hor, P.J., Zhu, Z.Q., Howe, D., Rees-Jones, J., "Minimization of cogging force in a linear permanent magnet motor", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.34, no.5, pp.3544-3547, Sep 1998.

In-Soung Jung, Jin Hur, Dong-seok Hyun, "Performance analysis of skewed PM linear synchronous motor according to various design parameters", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.37, no.5, pp.3653-3657, Sep 2001.

Ki-Bong Jang, Jee-Hyun Kim, Ho-Jin An, Gyu-Tak Kim, "Optimal Design of Auxiliary Teeth to Minimize Unbalanced Phase Due to End Effect of PMLSM", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.47, no.5, pp.1010-1013, May 2011.

Ghafari-Kashani, A.R., Faiz, J., Yazdanpanah, M.J., "Integration of non-linear H∞ and sliding mode control techniques for motion control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor," Electric Power Applications, IET, vol.4, no.4, pp.267-280, April 2010.

Huang, Y.-S.; Sung, C.-C., "Implementation of sliding mode controller for linear synchronous motors based on direct thrust control theory," Control Theory & Applications, IET , vol.4, no.3, pp.326,338, March 2010.

Lin, F.-J.; Hsieh, H.-J.; Chou, P.-H., "Tracking control of a two-axis motion system via a filtering-type sliding-mode control with radial basis function network," Control Theory & Applications, IET , vol.4, no.4, pp.655,671, April 2010.

Yi-Sheng Huang, Cheng-Chung Sung, "Function-Based Controller for Linear Motor Control Systems", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.57, no.3, pp.1096-1105, March 2010.

Lin, F. -J; Chou, P. -H; Kung, Y. -S, "Robust fuzzy neural network controller with nonlinear disturbance observer for two-axis motion control system," Control Theory & Applications, IET , vol.2, no.2, pp.151,167, February 2008.

Kok Kiong Tan, Tong Heng Lee, Hui Fang Dou, Shok Jun Chin, Shao Zhao, "Precision motion control with disturbance observer for pulsewidth-modulated-driven permanent-magnet linear motors", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.39, no.3, pp. 1813- 1818, May 2003.

Wei-Te Su, Chang-Ming Liaw, "Adaptive positioning control for a LPMSM drive based on adapted inverse model and robust disturbance observer", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.21, no.2, pp. 505- 517, March 2006.

Faiz, J., Manoochehri, M., Shahgholian, G., "Performance improvement of a linear permanent magnet synchronous motor drive using fuzzy logic controller,", 2010 International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON), pp.1-5, 24-28 Oct. 2010.

ZHANG, D., CHEN, Y., AI, W. and ZHOU, Z., “Precision motion control of permanent magnet linear motors”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 35(3-4), Springer-Verlag, pp. 301-308, 2007.

Cupertino, F., Naso, D., "An experimental comparison of adaptive and robust control methods for precise positioning with tubular linear motors," IECON 2010 - 36th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp.71-76, 7-10 Nov. 2010.

Otten, G., de Vries, T.J.A., van Amerongen, J., Rankers, A.M., Gaal, E.W., "Linear motor motion control using a learning feedforward controller ", IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol.2, no.3, pp.179-187, Sep 1997.

Butcher, M., Karimi, A., "Linear Parameter-Varying Iterative Learning Control with Application to a Linear Motor System", IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol.15, no.3, pp.412-420, June 2010.

Rotariu, I.; Steinbuch, M.; Ellenbroek, R., "Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for High Precision Motion Systems," IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol.16, no.5, pp.1075-1082, Sept. 2008.

Butler, H., "Adaptive Feedforward for a Wafer Stage in a Lithographic Tool," IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol.21, no.3, pp.875-881, May 2013.

S. Zhao, K.K. Tan, “Adaptive feedforward compensation of force ripples in linear motors”, Control Engineering Practice, Volume 13, Issue 9, Pages 1081-1092, September 2005.

K. K. Tan, S. N. Huang, and T. H. Lee, “Robust adaptive numerical compensation for friction and force ripple in permanent-magnet linear motors,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 221–228, Jan. 2002.

Shizhen Liu, Rongmin Cao, "Composite control method for permanent magnet linear motor," 2013 32nd Chinese Control Conference (CCC), pp.3014-3018, 26-28 July 2013.

Baratam Arundhati, Karlapudy Alice Mary, Munagala Suryakalavathi, “Implementation of Thrust Ripple Reduction for a Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Using an Adaptive Feed Forward Controller”, Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 4, p. 687-694, July 2014.

Bin Yao, Chuxiong Hu, Lu Lu, Qingfeng Wang, "Adaptive Robust Precision Motion Control of a High-Speed Industrial Gantry With Cogging Force Compensations", IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol.19, no.5, pp.1149-1159, Sept. 2011.

Li Xu, Bin Yao, "Adaptive robust precision motion control of linear motors with negligible electrical dynamics: theory and experiments", IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol.6, no.4, pp.444-452, Dec 2001.

Lin, F.-J.; Hsieh, H.-J.; Chou, P.-H.; Lin, Y.-S., "Digital signal processor-based cross-coupled synchronous control of dual linear motors via functional link radial basis function network," Control Theory & Applications, IET , vol.5, no.4, pp.552,564, March 3 2011.

Rovers, J.M.M., Jansen, J.W., Lomonova, E.A., "Multiphysical Analysis of Moving-Magnet Planar Motor Topologies,", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.49, no.12, pp.5730,5741, Dec. 2013.

Jokinen, M., “Centralized motion control of a linear tooth belt drive”, Dissertation, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, 2010.

Verweij Antoine, “Control of a permanent magnet linear motor with dSPACE and MATLAB/Simulink”, Thesis report, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Department of electrical engineering, Eindhoven, November 2000.

Huikuri Marko, Nevaranta Niko, Niemelä Markku, Pyrhönen Juha, “Sensorless Positioning of a Non-Salient Permanent Magnet Linear Motor by Combining Open-loop Current Angle Rotation Method and Back-EMF Estimator”, IECON 2013 39th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics, Austria, Vienna, Nov. 2013.

Shih-Chin Yang, Lorenz, R.D., "Surface Permanent-Magnet Machine Self-Sensing at Zero and Low Speeds Using Improved Observer for Position, Velocity, and Disturbance Torque Estimation," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.48, no.1, pp.151,160, Jan.-Feb. 2012.

Tian, D.; Shen, H.; Dai, M., "Improving the Rapidity of Nonlinear Tracking Differentiator via Feedforward,", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, early access, 2013.

Harnefors, L., Saarakkala, S.E., Hinkkanen, M., "Speed Control of Electrical Drives Using Classical Control Methods," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.49, no.2, pp.889,898, March-April 2013.

Mariethoz, S., Domahidi, A., Morari, M., "High-Bandwidth Explicit Model Predictive Control of Electrical Drives,", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.48, no.6, pp.1980,1992, Nov.-Dec. 2012.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize