Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Ballistic Reaching Using Visuomotor Maps Constructed with SOM Neural Networks for a Robot Manipulator

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



This paper describes a new way of constructing a visuomotor map that is applied in a manipulator robot to accomplish a ballistic reaching task. Ballistic reaching is employed to move the robot hand to a visible and optimal position, once the robot arrives to this position a visually guided task (visual servoing or a manipulation task) could be executed. The visuomotor map has been implemented using SOM (Self-Organized Map) neural networks in a simulated puma 560 robot. The visuomotor map deals with the visibility of the robot hand (end-effector) problem. So the robot can start with its end-effector in any random position of the workspace. A Cartesian controller triggered by a visuomotor map will find a suitable and visible position for the end-effector. Results and simulations are shown to demonstrate the applicability of our proposed model for a ballistic reaching task.
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Visuomotor Map; Self-Organized Map; Neural Networks; Robot Manipulator; Cartesian Controller

Full Text:



P. Vetter, S.J. Goodbody, and D. Wolpert, Evidence for an eye-centered spherical representation of the visuomotor map, Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 81:935-939, 1999

M. Kawato, Internal Models for motor control and trajectory planning. Curr. Opin. Neuro-biol., vol. 9: 718-727, 1999.

M. Kuperstein, Neural model of adaptive hand-eye coordination for single postures, Science, Vol. 239:1308-1311, 1988.

D.F.T. Gamarra, and L.K. Pinpin, Forward Models Applied in Ballistic Reaching for Visual Servoing, in Second Brazilian Congress on Fuzzy Systems, Natal, Brasil, 2012.

Gamarra, D.F.T., Forward models with cluster validity criteria applied in ballistic reaching for visual servoing, (2013) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 6 (6), pp. 1939-1947.

R. Saegusa, G. Metta, and G. Sandini, Body definition based on visuomotor correlation, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 59(Issue 8):3199-3210, 2012.

R.F. Vasallo, J. Santos-Victor, and H.J. Scheebeli, Task Learning and Adaptation Based on Visuomotor Mapping, in Automation Brazilian Congress (CBA), Gramado, Brasil, 2004.

D. F. T., Gamarra, Ballistic Reaching Using Visuomotor Maps in a Robot Manipulator for Starting a Visually Guided Task, International FLINS Conference on Decision Making and Soft Computing, João Pessoa, Brazil, 2014.

J.J. Craig, Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control, ( Pearson Prentice Hall, 1998).

P. Sanchez-Sanchez, and F. Reyes-Cortez, F., A new Cartesian control for a robot manipulator. In Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent robots and Systems-IROS, Puebla, Mexico, 2005.

X.Y. Zhang, J.S. Chen, and J.K. Dong, Color Clustering using Self-Organizing Maps, International Conference on Wavelet Analysis and Pattern Recognition, Beijing, China, 2007.

Nazar Ali, A., Jayabharath, R., Udayakumar, M.D., An ANFIS Based advanced MPPT control of a wind-solar hybrid power generation system, (2014) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 7 (4), pp. 638-643.

Boopathi, C.S., Venkadesan, A., Dash, S.S., Comparison of various learning algorithms for artificial neural network based on-line load flow analysis, (2014) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 7 (2), pp. 323-330.

D.F.T. Gamarra, L.K. Pinpin, C. Laschi, P. Dario. Forward Models Applied in Visual Servoing for a Reaching Task in the iCub Humanoid Robot. In Applied Bionics and Biomechanics, vol. 6, pp. 345-354, 2009.

P.I. Corke, A Robotic Toolbox for Matlab, IEEE in Robotics and Automation Magazine. vol. 3 (1), pp. 24-32.

P. Mariottini, and D. Prattivchizzo, EGT for Multiple View and Visual Servoing: Robotics Vision with Pinhole and Panoramic Cameras. In: IEEE in Robotics and Automation Magazine, vol. 12(4), pp. 26-39, 2005.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize