Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Model-Based Optimization of Copper Complexes Adsorption in Ammoniacal Thiosuphate Resin Solution System

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



This adsorption of copper using resin from thiosuphate leaching is a promoting process in gold extraction replacing carbon in cyanide process. A simultaneous model for the adsorption of copper complexes on resin in Ammoniacal Thiosuphate Resin Solution (ATRS) system has been developed by considering both reaction mechanism in solution and on resin, and using the multi-dimensional Newton-Raphson and Levenberg-Marquardt methods. The proposed model was simulated and validated using experimental data. As a result, the proposed model was in a very good agreement (R2 = 0.94). In addition, equilibrium constants associated with the exchange reactions of copper complexes on resin were obtained. The effect of independent variables on the adsorption of copper has been investigated based on the model simulation wherein the concentration of copper on resin exponentially decreased with the increase in equilibrium concentration of thiosuphate in solution. An optimization approach based on the proposed model was taken into account to maximize the concentration of most dominant copper complex of Cu(S2O3)23− on resin, and to obtain the optimal condition in the ATRS system with minimized reagent.
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Adsorption; Copper Complexes; Resin; Modeling; Simulation; Optimization

Full Text:



H. A. White, The Solubility of Gold in Thiosuphates and Thiocyanates, Journal of the Chemical Metallurgical and Mining Society of South Africa, Vol. 5: pp.109-111, 1905.

R. M. Berezowsky, and V. B. Sefton, Recovery of gold and silver from oxidation leach residues by ammoniacal thiosuphate leaching, Paper presented at AIME Annual Meeting, pp.102-105, New Orleans, LA, 1979.

K. Tozawa, Y. Inui, and Y. Umetsu, Dissolution of Gold in Ammoniacal Thiosuphate Solution. Metallurgical Society AIME, 12, 1981.

K. A. Ter-Arakelyan, K. A. Bagdasaryan, A. G. Oganyan, R. T. Mkrtchyan, and G. G. Babayan, On technological expediency of sodium thiosuphate usage for gold extraction from raw material, Izv. V.U.Z. Tsvetn. Metall., pp.72-76, 1984.

T. Jiang, J. Chen, and S. Xu, A kinetic study of gold leaching with thiosuphate, Hydrometallurgy, Fundamentals, Technology and Innovations (ed. J. B. Hiskey and G. W. Warren), AIME, Chapter 7, pp.119-126, 1993.

M. G. Aylmore, Treatment of a Refractory Gold–Copper Sulfide Concentrate by Copper Ammoniacal Thiosuphate Leaching, Miner. Eng., Vol. 14(6): pp.615-637, 2001.

D. M. Muir, and M. G. Aylmore, Thiosulphate as an Alternative to Cyanide for Gold-processing Issues and Impediments, Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, Vol. 113: pp.2-12, 2004.

G. Hilson, and A. J. Monhemius, Alternatives to Cyanide in the Gold Mining Industry: What Prospects for the Future?: Improving Environmental, Economic and Ethical Performance in the Mining Industry. Part 2. Life Cycle and Process Analysis and Technical Issues, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 14: 1158-1167, 2006.

J. W. Langhans, K. P. V. LEI, and T. G. Carnahan, Copper-catalyzed Thiosuphate Leaching of Low-grade Gold Ores, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 29: 191-203, 1992.

J. Li, J. D. Miller, R. Y. Wan, and K. M. Le Vier, K.M. The Ammoniacal Thiosulphate System for Precious Metal Recovery, Soc. for Min., Metall. and Explor, Littleton, Co., 1995.

P. L. Breuer, and M. I. Jeffrey, Copper Catalysed Oxidation of Thiosuphate by Oxygen in Gold Leach Solutions, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 16: pp.21-30, 2003.

T. V. Stupko, V. E. Minorov, and G. L. Pashkov, Temperature effect on equilibrium formations of metal ion complexes with ammonia in aqueous ammonium suphate solution, Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 71: pp.1087-1090, 1998.

S. B. Black, The Thermodynamic Chemistry of the Aqueous Copper-Ammonia Thiosuphate System, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Chemistry, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, 2006.

A. Muslim, Mechanistic Model-Based Speciation of Copper Complexes Adsorbed on Resin in an Ammoniacal Thiosuphate Resin-Solution System, Adsorption Science & Technology, Vol. 31(9): pp.777-790, 2013.

O. N. Kononova, and S. V. Zotova, Sorption recovery of gold from thiosuphate solution after leaching of products of chemical preparation of hard concentrates, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 59: pp.115-123, 2001.

P. A. Schmitz, S. Duyvesteyn, W. P. Johnson, L. Enloe, and J. Mcmullen, Ammoniacal thiosuphate and sodium cyanide leaching of preg-robbing Goldstrike ore carbonaceous matter, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 60: pp.25-40, 2001.

M. J. Nicol, and G. O'Malley, Recovering Gold from Thiosuphate Leach Pulps via Ion Exchange, JOM, Vol. 54(10): pp.44-46, 2002.

M. I. Jeffrey, and S. D. Brunt, The Quantification of Thiosuphate and Polythionates in Gold Leach Solutions and on Anion Exchange Resins. Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 89: pp.52-60, 2007.

A. Muslim, Adsorption of Copper Complexes on Anion Exchange Resin in Non-Ammoniacal and Ammoniacal Thiosuphate Leaching Systems, J. Chem. Eng. Process Technol., 3(1): pp.1-6, 2012.

A. Muslim, V. K. Pareek, M. O., Tadé, M. I. Jeffrey, and H. Zang, Adsorption of Polythionates and Thiosuphate on Strong Base Anion Exchange Resins, Proceeding of Chemeca 2009 Conference, pp. 615-620, Engineers Australia, Perth, WA, 2009.

Purolite, Purolite® A500/2788, Bala Cynwyd, USA, 2012.

W. L. Norman, Applied Mathematics Methods for Chemical Engineers (CRC Press LLC, 2001).

H. P. Williams, T. V. Williams, and P. F. Brian, Numerical Recipes in C++ (Cambridge University Press., 2002).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize