Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Vehicle Speed Control Using Gain Scheduling PID with Experimental Throttle-in-the-Loop

Faizul Akmar Abdul Kadir(1*), Noreffendy Tamaldin(2), Mohd Azman Abdullah(3), Md Razali Ayob(4), Khisbullah Hudha(5), Ahmad Kamal Mat Yamin(6)

(1) University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(2) University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(3) University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(4) University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(5) Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Malaysia
(6) University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding author



This paper presents a control strategy for controlling speed of a vehicle experiencing the disturbance from road gradient. A non-linear vehicle longitudinal model is developed as plant for modelling the vehicle behaviour in longitudinal direction with Electronic Throttle Body (ETB) is introduced as the inner-loop subsystem. The vehicle is subjected to several positive (uphill) road gradient disturbances with gain scheduling Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is proposed to control the vehicle speed. The simulation result is then validated using experimental throttle-in-the-loop method. MATLAB-SIMULINK is chosen as a simulation tool to simulate the vehicle dynamics behaviour and evaluate the performance of the control structure. The result shows that the proposed controller is able to effectively control the vehicle speed by reducing the speed drop during uphill travel and its performance is much better than fixed gain PID controller. The simulation results agree well with experimental.
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Gain Scheduling PID; Electronic Throttle Body; Throttle Control; Throttle-In-The-Loop; Vehicle Longitudinal Model; Vehicle Speed Control; Hardware-In-The-Loop

Full Text:



A. Shaout and M. A. Jarrah, Cruise Control Technology Review, Computers & Electrical Engineering, vol. 23:259-271, 1997.

Sharma, V., Purwar, S., Chebyshev neural network-based discrete-time adaptive speed control for a light weighted all-electric vehicle, (2014) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 9 (1), pp. 92-102.

K. J. Hunt, T. A. Johansen, J. Kalkkuhl, H. Fritz, and T. Gottsche, Speed Control Design for an Experimental Vehicle Using a Generalized Gain Scheduling Approach, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 8:381-395, 2000.

W. Wang, Modeling Scheme for Vehicle Longitudinal Control, in Proceedings of the 31st IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 549-554, Tucson, AZ, USA, 1992.

K. Osman, M. F. Rahmat, and M. A. Ahmad, Modelling and Controller Design for a Cruise Control System, IEEE 5th International Colloquium on Signal Processing & Its Applications, pp. 254-258, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009.

N. E. Kahveci and P. A. Ioannou, Cruise Control with Adaptation and Wheel Torque Constraints for Improved Fuel Economy, IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, pp. 640-645, San Diego, CA, USA, 2010.

A. H. Jinying, B. M. Bo, and C. W. Haojing, Design of Vehicle Speed Controller Based on Immune Feed-back, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, pp. 1033-1037, Jeju Island, Korea, 2009.

R. Jiuhong, F. Mengyin, L. Yibin, and H. Jinying, Study on Throttle Control of Intelligent Vehicle Longitudinal Motion, IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety, pp. 176-18, Xi'an, Shaan'xi, China, 2005.

P. Sahlholm and K. Henrik Johansson, Road Grade Estimation for Look-ahead Vehicle Control using Multiple Measurement Runs, Control Engineering Practice, vol. 18:1328-1341, 2010.

K. Oda, H. Takeuchi, M. Tsujii, and M. Ohba, Practical Estimator for Self-Tuning Automotive Cruise Control, American Control Conference, pp. 2066-2071, Boston, MA, USA, 1991.

P. Ioannou and Z. Xu, Throttle Control for Vehicle Following, The First IEEE Regional Conference on Aerospace Control Systems California, pp. 226-230, USA, 1993.

M. Short, M. J. Pont, and Q. Huang, Simulation of Vehicle Longitudinal Dynamics, University of Leicester ESL 04-01, 2004.

R. Scattolini, C. Siviero, M. Mazzucco, S. Ricci, L. Poggio, and C. Rossi, Modeling and Identification of an Electromechanical Internal Combustion Engine Throttle Body, Control Engineering Practice, vol. 5:1253-1259, 1997.

C. Rossi, A. Tilli, and A. Tonielli, Robust Control of a Throttle Body for Drive by Wire Operation of Automotive Engines, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 8:993-1002, 2000.

M. Baotic, M. Vasak, M. Morari, and N. Peric, Hybrid System Theory Based Optimal Control of an Electronic Throttle, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, pp. 5209-5214, Denver, Colorado, 2003.

J. Deur, D. Parković, M. Jansz, and N. Perić, Automatic Tuning of Electronic Throttle Control Strategy, The 11th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, Rhodes Island, Greece, 2003.

J. Deur, D. Pavkovic, N. Peric, M. Jansz, and D. Hrovat, An Electronic Throttle Control Strategy Including Compensation of Friction and Limp-home Effects, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 40: 821-834, 2004.

Q. Ma, L. Shao, and S. Yurkovich, Diagnostics for Automotive Electronic Throttle Body Systems, Proceedings of the American Control Conference, pp. 5041-5045, Portland, OR, USA, 2005.

Q. Weikang, W. Li, X. Lingjun, and Z. Yifang, Practical Solution for Automotive Electronic Throttle Control Based on FPGA, 9th International Conference on Signal Processing, pp. 453-457, Beijing, China, 2008.

Y. Pan, U. Ozguner, and O. H. Dagci, Variable-Structure Control of Electronic Throttle Valve, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55:3899-3907, 2008.

P. Mercorelli, Robust Feedback Linearization using an Adaptive PD Regulator for a Sensorless Control of a Throttle Valve, Mechatronics, vol. 19:1334-1345, 2009.

M. Blundell and D. Harty, The Multibody Systems Approach to Vehicle Dynamics (Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004).

O. Seungkyu, K. Hyoungsoo, and J. Jinhee, Proposals for Improvement of AFS System using HIL & SIL Simulation, ICCAS-SICE, pp. 555-559, Fukuoka International Congress Centre, Japan, 2009.

H. Schuette and P. Waeltermann, Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Vehicle Dynamics Controller – A Technical Survey, SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1660, 2005.

K. Hudha, M. H. Zakaria, and N. Tamaldin, Hardware In The Loop Simulation Of Active Front Wheel Steering Control For Yaw Disturbance Rejection, International Journal of Vehicle Safety, vol. 5:356-373, 2011.

E. Bakker, H. Pacejka, and L. Lidner, A New Tire Model with Application in Vehicle Dynamics Studies, SAE Paper No. 890087, pp. 101-113, 1989.

B. J. Olsen, S. W. Shaw, and G. Stépán, Nonlinear Dynamics of Vehicle Traction, Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 40:377-399, 2003.

H. S. Bae, J. Ruy, and J. C. Gerdes, Road Grade and Vehicle Parameter Estimation for Longitudinal Control Using GPS, Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2001.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize