Review on Developments in Wind Energy Generation and its Integration to Utility Grid

Sony Kurian(1*), T. K. Sindhu(2), Elizabeth P. Cheriyan(3)

(1) Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, India
(2) Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, India
(3) Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, India
(*) Corresponding author

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Efficient conversion of wind power to electricity and its integration to the grid has been a topic of intense research in recent times, to improve the contribution of energy from renewable sources. When the penetration level of wind generation increases in grid, dynamic and transient behaviour of the system get affected. To maintain the reliability of the system, well defined grid codes are to be formed that has to be followed by independent power producers to avoid wind energy curtailment and ensure quality of power available in grid. Given the intermittent nature of wind, the subject of various storage mechanisms becomes critical to avail energy scheduling from a wind farm. This paper undertakes an exhaustive study of various wind electric generators and grid integration technologies along with the grid codes. The review highlights that direct driven generators dominate in recent installations due to their superior performance compared with other generator configurations. Consequently, a permanent magnet synchronous generator based gearless wind electric system along with battery energy storage is modeled and its performance is evaluated. The grid codes that are to be followed are also incorporated in the model.
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Wind Energy; Integrated Operation; Grid Codes; Fault Ride Through

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