Theoretical and Experimental Estimation of the Hysteretic Component of Friction for a Visco-Elastic Material Sliding on a Rigid Rough Surface

F. Farroni(1*), R Russo Sarno(2), F. Timpone(3)

(1) Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy
(2) Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy
(3) Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy
(*) Corresponding author

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


According to the most recent approaches, the friction coefficient arising between tyre rubber and road can be seen as constituted by three components: adhesion, deforming hysteresis and wear. This paper deals with the estimation of the hysteretic component of friction. This component is due to indentation phenomena regarding contact mechanics of deformable bodies sliding on the asperities of a rough substrate, which exert oscillating forces at the interface, leading to cyclic deformations of the rubber and then to energy "dissipation" via its internal damping. To evaluate this component, a physical model able to calculate energy dissipation of a rubber block indented by a rigid asperity in sliding contact has been built. To this aim the visco-elastic characteristics of the material have been taken into account. The road profile has been modelled as the sum of two sinusoidal waves characterizing the macro and the micro roughness scales. The results coming out from the physical model have been validated by means both of FEM models results and of experimental tests carried on a pin on disk tribometer.
Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Visco-Elastic Material; Sliding Friction; Hysteresis Model

Full Text:



F. Farroni, M. Russo, R. Russo, M. Terzo, F. Timpone – “A combined use of phase plane and handling diagram method to study the influence of tyre and vehicle characteristics on stability” - Vehicle System Dynamics, DOI: 10.1080/00423114.2013.797590, 2013

Terzo, M., Timpone, F., The control of the handling of a front wheel drive vehicle by means of a magnetorheological differential, (2013) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 7 (3), pp. 395-401.

R. Russo, M. Terzo, F. Timpone - "Software in the loop development and validation of a cornering brake control logic" - Vehicle System Dynamics, 45 (2) , pp. 149-163, 2007.

R. Russo, M. Terzo, F. Timpone – “Software-in-the-loop development and experimental testing of a semi-active magnetorheological coupling for 4WD on demand vehicles” - 11th VSDIA, Mini Conference on Vehicle System Dynamics, Identification and Anomalies, 2008

Carro, M. ,Russo, M., Timpone, F. - "A Modern Approach to Design Optimization and Development of Vehicle Control Systems" - 8th VSDIA, Mini Conference on Vehicle System Dynamics, Identification and Anomalies, 2002.

L. Della Pietra, F. Timpone - Tension in a flat belt transmission: experimental investigation - Mechanism and Machine Theory – DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2013.07.003, 2013

H. Kim, K. Marshek, M. Naji – “Forces between an abrasive belt and pulley” - Mech. Mach. Theory, Vol.22, No 1, pp. 97-103, 1987

L. Kong – R. Parker – “Microslip friction in flat belt drives” – Proc.IMechE 2005 Vol.219 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science, pp.1097-1106

Persson, B. N. J., Tartaglino, U., Albohr, O., Tosatti, E. - "On the nature of surface roughness with application to contact mechanics, sealing, rubber friction and adhesion" - Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 17, 2005.

Carbone, G., Lorenz, B., Persson, B. N. J., Wohlers, A., "Contact mechanics and rubber friction for randomly rough surfaces with anisotropic statistical properties" - The European Physiscal Journal E – Soft Matter, 29 (3), 275–284, (2009).

Capone, G., Giordano, D., Russo, M., Terzo, M., Timpone, F. - "Ph.An.Ty.M.H.A.: A physical analytical tyre model for handling analysis - The normal interaction" - Vehicle System Dynamics, 47 (1) , pp. 15-27, 2009.

Wrana, C., Härtel, V. - "Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Filled Elastomers" - KGK Kautschuk, Gummi, Kunststoffe, December, 2008.

Williams, M. L., Landel, R. F., Ferry, J. D. - "The temperature dependence of relaxation mechanisms in amorphous polymers and other glass-forming liquids" - Journal of American Chemical Society, 77 (14), 1955.

Schallamach, A. - "The Velocity and Temperature Dependence of Rubber Friction" - Proc. Phys. Soc., B 66, 1953.

Bobbo, S., Cossalter, V., Massaro, M., Peretto, M. - "Application of the "optimal maneuver method" for enhancing racing motorcycle performance" - SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, 1 (1), pp. 1311-1318, 2009.

Baldoni, F., Galante, F., Pernetti, M., Russo, M., Terzo, M., Toscano, M. - "Tuning and objective performance evaluation of a driving simulator to investigate tyre behaviour in on-centre handling manoeuvres" - Vehicle System Dynamics, 49 (9), pp. 1423 – 1440, 2011.

Carbone, G., Scaraggi, M., Tartaglino, U. - “Adhesive contact of rough surfaces: comparison between numerical calculations and analytical theories” - The Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids (2009).

Brancati, R., Rocca, E., Timpone F. - "An experimental test rig for pneumatic tyre mechanical parameters measurement" - 12th VSDIA, Mini Conference on Vehicle System Dynamics, Identification and Anomalies, 2010.

Brancati, R., Strano, S., Timpone, F., "An analytical model of dissipated viscous and hysteretic energy due to interaction forces in a pneumatic tire: Theory and experiments" - Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 25 (7), 2785–2795, 2011, doi: 10 . 1016 / j . ymssp . 2011 . 04 . 007.

Gadelmawla, E. S., Koura, M. M. - "Roughness Parameters" - Journal of Material Processing Technology, 123, 2002.

Ferry, J. D. - "Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers" - Wiley, New York, 1980.

Allouis, C., Amoresano, A., Giordano, D., Russo, M., Timpone, F., Measurement of the thermal diffusivity of a tire compound by mean of infrared optical technique, (2012) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 6 (6), pp. 1104-1108.

Gabbott, P. - "Principles and Applications of Thermal Analysis" - Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2008.

Etienne, S., David, L. - "Introduction à la physique des polymères" - DUNOD, 2012.

Kuznetsov, Y. A., Gorokhovsky, G. A. - "Stress distribution in a polymeric material subjected to the action of a rough-surface indenter" - Wear, 51, 1978.

Kuznetsov, Y. A., Gorokhovsky, G. A. -"Distribution of mechanical energy supplied to the contact area by a periodic sinusoidal indenter" - Wear, 62, 1980.

Kuznetsov, Y. A., Gorokhovsky, G. A. - "Effect of tangential load on the stressed state of rubbing rough bodies" - Wear, 73, 1981.

Farroni, F., Russo, M., Russo, R., Timpone, F. - "Tyre - Road Interaction: Experimental Investigations about the Friction Coefficient Dependence on Contact Pressure, Road Roughness, Slide Velocity and Temperature" - Proceedings of the ASME 2012 11th Biennial Conference On Engineering Systems Design And Analysis, 2012.

Farroni, F., Rocca, E., Russo, R., Savino, S., Timpone, F. - "Experimental investigations about adhesion component of friction coefficient dependence on road roughness, contact pressure, slide velocity and dry/wet conditions" - 13th VSDIA, Mini Conference on Vehicle System Dynamics, Identification and Anomalies, 2012.

Horigan Smith, R. - "Analyzing Friction in the Design of Rubber Products" - Taylor & Francis, 2008.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize