A Novel Scheme for a Feed-In Tariff Policy to Favorite Photovoltaic and Batteries Energy Storage Systems for Grid-Connected End-User

Grazia Belli(1*), Giovanni Brusco(2), Alessandro Burgio(3), Daniele Menniti(4), Anna Pinnarelli(5), Nicola Sorrentino(6)

(1) University of Calabria, Italy
(2) University of Calabria, Italy
(3) University of Calabria, Italy
(4) University of Calabria, Italy
(5) University of Calabria, Italy
(6) University of Calabria, Italy
(*) Corresponding author

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


The paper proposes a novel scheme for a feed-in tariff policy to favorite the adoption of a system which combines a photovoltaic (PV) system and a battery energy storage (BES) system. An optimization problem is also proposed to sizing jointly the PV and the BES systems. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is evaluated using software simulations; the energy consumption of a real end-user, over each 15 minutes and covering 2011, is also considered. The optimal solution is investigated further in terms of cash flows and life of the batteries. The impact on the load is also discussed in detail. Numerical results demonstrate the attractiveness and the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Batteries; Feed-In Tariff; Optimization Problem; Photovoltaic; Storage

Full Text:



M. Mendonca, B. Sovacool, D. Jacobs, Powering the Green Economy: The Feed-In Tariff Handbook (Earthscan Publications, 2009).

G. Krajačić, N. Duić, A. Tsikalakis, M. Zoulias, G. Caralis, E. Panteri and M. Carvalho, Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies, Energy Policy, Vol. 39 (Issue 3): 1410-1425, March 2011.

World Energy Outlook 2012 (International Energy Agency, 2012)

B. Sørensen, Chapter 30 - Pumped hydro storage, Renewable Energy Conversion, Transmission and Storage (Academic Press, Burlington, 261-266, 2007).

J.P. Deane, B.P. Ó Gallachóir and E.J. McKeogh, Techno-economic review of existing and new pumped hydro energy storage plant, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14(Issue 4): 1293-1302, May 2010.

Aghajani, S., Kalantar, M., Optimal operation of combined wind power generation and pumped-storage units in the electricity markets, (2010) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 5 (5), pp. 2385-2391.

Najafi, M., Hoseinpour, M., Siahi, M., Generation expansion of a hydro producer by constructing pumped-storage plant, (2010) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 5 (6), pp. 2929-2935.

Y.M. Kim, D.G. Shin and D. Favrat, Operating characteristics of constant-pressure compressed air energy storage (CAES) system combined with pumped hydro storage based on energy and exergy analysis, Energy, Vol. 36 (Issue 10): 6220-6233, October 2011.

T. U. Daim, X. Li, J. Kim and S. Simms, Evaluation of energy storage technologies for integration with renewable electricity: Quantifying expert opinions, Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, Vol. 3: 29-49, June 2012.

Golkar, M.A., Hajizadeh, A., Power flow control of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and battery energy storage system during voltage sags in distribution systems, (2008) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 3 (6), pp. 1004-1014.

Gonzalez, M., Cardenas, V., Visairo, N., Voltage regulation with a dynamic voltage restorer using reactive power for low DC energy storage utilization, (2009) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 4 (1), pp. 75-85.

K. Zach, H. Auer, G. Körbler, G. Lettner, The Role of Bulk Energy Storage in Facilitating Renewable Energy Expansion, [Online]. Available: http://www.store-project.eu/en_GB/project-results.

J. Eyer, G. Corey, Energy Storage for the Electricity Grid: Benefits and Market Potential Assessment Guide - A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program, SANDIA Report SAND 2010-0815, 2010.

D. Rastler,Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs, and Benefits, Electric power research institute -EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, 2010

S. Koohi-Kamali, V.V. Tyagi, N.A. Rahim, N.L. Panwar and H. Mokhlis, Emergence of energy storage technologies as the solution for reliable operation of smart power systems: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 25: 135-165, September 2013.

H. L. Ferreira, R. Garde, G. Fulli, W. Kling and J. P. Lopes, Characterisation of electrical energy storage technologies, Energy, Vol. 53: 288-298, May 2013.

Yu Ru, Kleissl, J. and S. Martinez, Storage Size Determination for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems, Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 4 (Issue 1): 68-81, January 2013.

K.C. Divya and J. Østergaard, Battery Energy Storage Technology for Power Systems-An Overview, Electric Power System Research, Vol. 79: 511-520, April 2009.

R. Sioshansia, P. Denholmb and T. Jenkinb, Market and Policy Barriers to Deployment of Energy Storage, Economics of Energy and Environmental Policy Journal, Vol. 1 (Issue 2): pp. 47,63, March 2012.

S. Drouilhet, B.L. Johnson, A Battery Life Prediction Method for Hybrid Power Applications, 35th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 1997.

H. Wenzl, I.Baring-Gould, R. Kaiser, B. Y. Liaw, P. Lundsager, J. Manwell, A. Ruddell and V. Svoboda, Life prediction of batteries for selecting the technically most suitable and cost effective battery, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 144 (Issue 2): 373-384, June 2005.

J. Schiffer, D. U. Sauer, H. Bindner, T.Cronin, P. Lundsager and R. Kaiser, Model prediction for ranking lead-acid batteries according to expected lifetime in renewable energy systems and autonomous power-supply systems, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 168 (Issue 1): 66-78, May 2007.

M. Ecker, J. B. Gerschler, J. Vogel, S. Käbitz, F.Hust, P. Dechent and D. U. Sauer, Development of a lifetime prediction model for lithium-ion batteries based on extended accelerated aging test data, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 215: 248-257, October 2012.

C. J. Rydh and B. A. Sandén, Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part I: Performance and energy requirements, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 46 (, Issues 11–12): 1957-1979, July 2005.

JRC’s Institute for energy and transport, Photovoltaic Geographical Information System, [Online], Available: http://sunbird.jrc.it/pvgis/


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize