A Goal Programming Approach for Optimal PMU Placement

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This article proposes a multi-objective goal programming based approach with two objectives of maximizing the reliability and minimizing the placement cost of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) for full observability in power systems. The weighted sum goal programming formulation incorporates the reliability of individual PMUs and finds a placement to resolve the conflicting objectives of minimum number of PMUs cost-wise and maximum level of system-wide reliability. This multi-objective problem is formulated as a nonlinear goal programming model in which weights are associated with the objectives. The model is solved for several weight scenarios for the IEEE 14, 30, 57 and 118 bus test systems. The benefit of the proposed model has been demonstrated by comparing the results with the traditional optimal cost-wise only PMU placement and existing reliability based placement models.  The system reliability is improved by ~45% compared to optimal PMU placement models. Also, the number of PMUs is reduced by ~40% compared to reliability based placement models with the proposed goal programming approach.
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Phasor Measurement Units; Power System Observability; Goal Programming; Multi-Objective Optimization; Nonlinear Programming; Reliability Modeling

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