Modeling, Simulation and Implementation of Low Cost Calibration Method for Active Devices

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


Complete characterization of active devices has been done using accurate low cost two-port calibration method, SOLT, with vector network analyzer (VNA) using the 12-term error model.  Generic SOLT test fixtures short, open, load and thru have been designed, simulated and built using grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) structure. The test fixtures have been first simulated for design verification and accuracy, and then built, measured and then their fixturing effects have been removed using the 12-term error model with VNA, HP8753ES. Several biasing schemes for the active devices have been simulated, implemented and measured. Results have been compared with the published manufacturer data and close agreement has been seen on all of them. It has been shown that the complete characterization of active devices using SOLT calibration method is possible when test fixtures are implemented using GCPW structure and simulated with planar electromagnetic simulators to increase the accuracy of the characterization parameters. Furthermore, this method helps identifying the best operating conditions of the device under test (DUT) for high performance.
Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


SOLT; 12-Term Error; Device Characterization; Coplanar Waveguides; S Parameters

Full Text:



Mobashsher, A.T., Islam, M.T., Misran, N., Design analysis of a dual frequency RFID reader antenna, (2010) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 5 (4), pp. 1838-1847.

Rimminen, H., Linnavuo, M., Sepponen, R., Human identification and localization using active capacitive RFID tags and an electric field floor sensor, (2010) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 5 (3), pp. 1061-1068.

A. Ferrero, V. Teppati, M. Garelli, and A. Neri, “A novel calibration algorithm for a special class of multi-port vector network analyzers," IEEE Trans. on Microw. Theory and Tech., Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 693-699, 2008.

J. Hu K.G. Gard M.B. Steer, “Calibrated non-linear vector network measurement without using a multi-harmonic generator,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 616–624, May 2011.

El-Deeb, W. S., M. S. Hashmi, S. Bensmida, N. Boulejfen, and F. M. Ghannouchi, “Thru-less calibration algorithm and measurement system for on-wafer large-signal characterization of microwave devices,” IET Microwaves, Antenna and Propagation,” Vol. 4, No. 11, pp.1773-1781, November 2010.

U. Stumper, “Uncertainty of VNA S-parameter measurement due to non-ideal TRL calibration items,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 676–679, 2005.

W. Zhao, H.-B. Qin, and L. Qiang, “A calibration procedure for two port VNA with three measurement channels based on T-matrix,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 29, 35-42, 2012.

I. M. Kang, S.-J. Jung, T.-H. Choi, J.-H. Jung, C. Chung, H.-S. Kim, H. Oh, H. W. Lee, G. Jo, Y.-K. Kim, H.-G. Kim, and K.-M. Choi, “Five-step (pad–pad short–pad open–short–open) de-embedding method and its verification,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett., vol. 30, no.4, pp. 398–400, Apr. 2009.

S. Padmanabhan, L. Dunleavy, J. E. Daniel, “Broadband space conservative on-wafer network analyzer calibrations with more complex load and thru models,” IEEE Trans. on Microw. Theory and Tech., Vol. 54, No. 9, pp. 3583-3593, 2006.

W.M. Okamura, M.M. DuFault, and A.K. Sharma, “A comprehensive millimeter- wave calibration development and verification approach,” 2000 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., pp. 1477–1480, 11–16 June, 2000.

S. Rehnmark, “On the calibration process of automatic network analyzer systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-22, pp. 457-458, Apr. 1974.

J. V. Butler, Douglas K. Rytting, M. F. Iskander, R. D. Pollard, and M. V. Bossche, “16-term error model and calibration procedure for on-wafer network analysis measurements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.39,no.12, pp. 2211-2217, Dec. 1991.

G.F. Engen, and C. A. Hoer, “Thru-reflect-line: An improved technique for calibrating the dual six-port automatic network analyzer,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 27, No. 12, 987-993, December 1979.

D.C. DeGroot, J. A. Jargon, and R. B. Marks, “Multiline TRL revealed,” 60th ARFTG Conference Digest, 131-155, 2002.

C. Shih, “Advanced TRL (Through-Reflect-Line) Fixture Design and Error Analyses for RF High Power Transistor Characterization and Automatic Load Pull Measurement,” 51st ARFTG Conference Digest, 72-76, 1998.

R.B. Marks, “A multiline method of network analyzer calibration," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 39, No. 7, 1205{1215, 1991.

W. Kruppa, K.F. Sodomsky, “An Explicit Solution for the Scattering Parameters of a Linear Two-Port Measured with an Imperfect Test Set (Correspondence), ” IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 19, No.1, pp.122 – 123, Jan 1971.

J. Fitzpatrick, “Error models for system measurements,” Microwave Journal, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 63–66, May 1978.

M. Imparato, T. Weller, and L. Dunleavy, “On-wafer calibration using space conservative (SOLT) standards,” 1999 IEEE MTT-S Int’l Microwave Symposium, vol. 4, pp. 1643-1646, June 1999.

S. Padmanabhan, P. Kirby, J. Daniel, L. Dunleavy, “Accurate Broadband on wafer SOLT calibrations with Complex Load and Thru Models,” 61st ARFTG Conference Digest, June 2003.

B. C. Wadell, Transmission Line Design Handbook, Artech House 1991.

I. Wolf,Coplanar Microwave Integrated Circuits, Wiley, 2006.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize