Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Adaptive Welding of S960QC UHSS for Arctic Structural Applications

Emmaniel Afrane Gyasi(1*), Paul Kah(2), Heikki Handroos(3), Pavel Layus(4), Sanbao Lin(5)

(1) School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Welding Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
(2) School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Welding Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
(3) School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
(4) School of Energy Systems, Laboratory of Welding Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
(5) State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai, China
(*) Corresponding author



The construction of welded structures capable of withstanding the harsh operating conditions found in the Arctic region is essential for effective exploitation of the area. This paper examines the usability of S960QC UHSS as potential weldable material for lightweight Arctic structural constructions. The paper concurrently explores the applicability of an adaptive robotic GMAW process in welding the UHSS material. The adaptive welding system featured an infrared thermo-profile scanner. S960QC UHSS was welded in two different fillet joint orientations employing PA and PB welding positions. Using the adaptive welding system, the behavior of welding parameters such as current, voltage and heat input and their effect on the temperature of the weld seam were monitored in relation to the metallurgical properties of the welds. It was observed that the orientation of the joint geometry influences weld penetration and the shape of the weld. Metallurgical tests performed across the weld metal revealed that, using heat inputs between 0.5–0.65 kJ/mm, weld hardness between 375–397 HV5 can be achieved. The hardness values together with impact strength of 33–50 J at an operating temperature of -40 oC demonstrate material properties suitable for Arctic structural applications where excellent strength-to-weight ratio and high load carrying capacity are required. The paper contributes to the field of lightweight steel construction and digitization in welding where adaptive intelligent systems are harnessed in sensing, monitoring, predicting and modelling of the welding process for weld quality control and assurance purposes.
Copyright © 2018 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Adaptive Welding; Arctic Welded Structures; Heat Inputs; Robotic GMAW Process; Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS); Weld Hardness

Full Text:



P. Budzik, Arctic Oil and Gas Potential, Publications of US Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting Oil and Gas Division, 2009.

J. Lancaster, Handbook of Structural Welding Processes, Materials and Methods Used in the Welding of Major Structures, Pipelines and Process Plant (3rd edition, Cambridge, 2003).

O. N. Knut, The Arctic – A Region of Opportunities and Interest. Stiftelsen Det Norske Veritas Germanischer Lloyd (DNV.GL), 2012.

K. Paananen, Opportunities for Finland – the Arctic and Russia, Baltic Rim Economics, Quarterly Review 3, Expert Article 1267, 2013.

A. Khaustov, New cold-resistant steel for shipbuilding, Sudostroenie, Vol 4, pp 57-58, 2006.

I. Novitsky, A. Portnoy, V. Razuvaev, V, Handbook of Design of Offshore Platforms: Requirements of Standards (Teoksessa, Saint Petersburg, Russia: SPbGMTU, 2009) (in Russian).

I. V. Gorynin, V. V. Rybin, V. A. Malyshevskii, E. I. Khlusova, Alloying principles, phase transformation, structure and properties of low-temperature weldable shipbuilding steels, Metal Science and Heat Treatment, Vol. 49, n. 1-2, pp. 3-9, 2007.

P. D. Odessey, Microalloying of steels for the North and unique metal structures, Intermet Engineering, pp.176, 2006.

P. Layus, P. Kah, M. Kesse, E. A. Gyasi, Submerged Arc Welding Process in Welding Thick High Strength Steel Plates Used for Arctic Applications, Proc. 27th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA June 2017, pp. 92-98.

P. Layus, P. Kah, J. Martikainen, V. Gezha, Advanced SAW processes for Arctic structures and ice-going vessels, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Vol.232(1), pp.1-14, 2018.

A. Ilyin, Presentation at Prometheus seminar, Saint Petersburg, 2013.

Alform, Superior Solutions in High-Strength and Ultra-High-Strength TM steel, Voestalpine Steel Division, 17th edition. [Online] alform_Produktfolder_Hochfeste_und_Ultrahochfeste_TM_EN_1401.pdf. Accessed 5.1.2018.

P. Layus, P. Kah, J. Martikainen, Peculiarities of Welding Technical Requirements for Arctic Applications, Proc. 25th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference (Hawaii, USA June 2015), pp. 285-288.

M. C. Serreze, R. G. Barry, The Arctic Climate System (2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, 2005).

R. Przybylak, The Climate of the Arctic, Springer, pp. 288, 2003.

J. P. Kaushish, Manufacturing Processes, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd, 1007, 2008.

T. L. Anderson, H. I. McHenry, Interim Progress Report: Fracture Toughness of Steel Weldments for Arctic Structures, NBSIR 83-16980, Colorado 80303, 1982.

P. Layus, P. Kah, E. Khlusova, V. Orlov, Study of the sensitivity of high-strength cold-resistant shipbuilding steels to thermal cycle of arc welding, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Vol.13(3), pp.1-9, 2018.

D. Porter, Development in Hot-Rolled High-Strength Steel, Nordic Welding Conference, New Trends in Welding Technology, Tampere, Finland, 2006.

M. Hemmilä, R. Laitinen, T. Liimatainen, D. Porter, Mechanical and Technological Properties of Ultra High Strength Optim Steels, Rautaruukki Oyj, Helsinki. [Online] Accessed 18.1 2018.

P. Kah, M. Pirinen, R. Suoranta, J. Martikainen, Welding of ultra high strength steels, Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 849, pp. 357-365, 2014.

T. Björk, J. Toivonen, T. Nykänen, Capacity of fillet welded joints made of ultra-high strength steel, Weld World, Vol. 57, pp. 71–84, 2012.

Ruukki Metals, Hot Rolled Steel Plates, Sheets and Coils – Processing of Materials- Impact Strength and Through Thickness Properties. Helsinki, 2007.

Z. A. Chen, Z. Zeng, Y. J. Chao, Effect of crack depth on the shift of the ductile–brittle transition curve of steels, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 74, n.15, pp. 2437–2448, 2007.

N. E. Dowling, Mechanical Behavior of Materials. Engineering Methods for Deformation, Fracture, and Fatigue (3rd edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 912, 2007).

F. Dominique, P. Andre, Z. Andre, Mechanical Behaviour of Material”. Volume II: Fracture Mechanics and Damage, Dordrecht Springer, pp. 662, 2013.

W. D. Callister, D. G. Rethwisch, Materials Science and Engineering (6th edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2007).

F. Zhen, K. Zhang, Z. Guo, J. Qu, Effect of martensite fine structure on mechanical properties of an 1100 MPa grade ultra-high strength steel, Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, Vol.22, pp. 645–651, 2015.

X. Wu, H. Lee, Y. M. Kim, N. J. Kim, Effects of processing parameters on microstructure and properties of ultra high strength line-pipe steel, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 28, pp. 889–894, 2012.

B. C. Howard, C. H. Scott, Modern Welding Technology (6th edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, USA, 2005).

A. Kumar, T. Debroy, Heat transfer and fluid flow during gas-metal-arc-fillet welding for various joint configuration and welding positions, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 38A, pp. 506-519, 2007.

E. A. Gyasi, P. Kah, J. Ratava, M. Kesse, E. Hiltunen, Study of Adaptive Automated GMAW Process for Full Penetration Fillet Welds in Offshore Steel Structures, Proc. 27th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA June 2017, pp. 290-297.

E. A. Gyasi, P. Kah, H. Wu, M. A. Kesse, Modeling of an artificial intelligence system to predict structural integrity in robotic GMAW of UHSS fillet welded joints, Int J Adv Manuf Technol. Vol. 93, pp. 1139-1155, 2017.

E. A. Gyasi, P. Kah, Structural integrity analysis of the usability of high strength steels. Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci, Vol. 46, pp: 39-52, 2016.

J. N. Pires, A. Loureiro, G. Bölmsjo, Welding robots: Technology, system issues and applications. Springer-Verlag London Limited. pp.180, 2006.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2018 Praise Worthy Prize