Modern Approach to Formation and Subsequent Exploitation of Technogenic Deposits
Modern trends in the Russian mining industry manifest themselves in a gradual increase in rock mass extraction volumes (in coal and ore mining industry), especially using open-cast mining. New mineral deposits continue to emerge, and the existing ones are being exploited, but the mining conditions are becoming more complicated and problematic, and the number and severity of incidents in mining industry decrease only from time to time with severe accidents accompanied by lethal consequences still being common. That is why the issue regarding exploitation of the existing technogenic deposits is especially topical since their shape and the granulometry of raw materials they contain favor their exploitation and extraction of valuable components, as well as gaining sufficient profit. Theoretically, technogenic deposits’ mining is part of complex use of mineral raw materials and a profitable way of increasing its supply to the market, and at the same time it solves issues like preservation of natural wealth underground, improvement of the environment in the vicinity of mining enterprises, etc. However, the current heaps have been formed through dumping taking into account only two requirements – spending less on dumping and ensuring the safety of slopes. And neither the possibility of prospect mining using improved mining and processing machinery and technology nor reconsideration of mining parameters of mineral resources were taken into account. Therefore, the extent of by-product excavation and production waste use is still insignificant and does not exceed 10%. Along with the other issues, this is also due to the fact that there is no clear comprehensive outline for formation of technogenic deposits, which would include selection and reasoning of rational parameters and structure for waste warehouses, which is especially important under stricter environmental regulations and in terms of rational land use.
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