Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Effect of Cold Mechanical Process on the Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel for Medical Implant Application

Wan Mohd Farid Wan Mohamad(1*), Mohd Zulkefli Selamat(2), Bunbun Bundjali(3), Hamzah Mohd Dom(4), Masjuri Musa(5)

(1) Centre for Advanced Research on Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(2) Centre for Advanced Research on Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
(4) Centre for Advanced Research on Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(5) Centre for Advanced Research on Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding author


DOI: https://doi.org/10.15866/ireme.v9i4.5867

Abstract


The objective of this research was to study the mechanical properties of cold-worked 316L stainless steel (SS) after it has undergone the cold mechanical process. A 316L SS sheet was cold-rolled until a reduction in thickness was within the range of 10% to 50%. The sheet was then plastically deformed into a U-bend shape using a universal testing machine equipped with a bending jig. The mechanical properties of the cold-rolled and U-bend steel were analysed using a tensile, 3-point bending, and microhardness tests. It was found that the rolling and bending processes produced such amount of plastic strain that affect the mechanical properties of the 316L SS. The strength of the cold-rolled, U-bend 316L SS increased gradually as the cold reduction was raised above 10%, which was mainly due to the strain hardening effects. The ultimate strength of the U-bend steel increased gradually compared to the cold-rolled steel for each stage of the cold reduction process. On the other hand, the microhardness of the U-bend steel increased rapidly after a cold reduction up to 10%, and the value increased slightly after a cold reduction of 30%. This study indicated that the mechanical properties of 316L SS can be increased by using a combination of the cold rolling and bending processes.
Copyright © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.

Keywords


316L Stainless Steel; Cold Mechanical Process; Mechanical Properties

Full Text:

PDF


References


Joon B. Park, Young Kon Kim, Metallic biomaterials, In Joyce Y. Wong, Joseph D. Bronzino (Ed.), Biomaterials (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2007, 1-22).

Hendra Hermawan, Dadan Ramdan, Joy R.P. Djuansjah, Metals for biomedical applications, In Reza Fazel-Rezai (Ed.), Biomedical engineering: from theory to applications (Janeza Trdine: InTech, 2011, 411-430).
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/19033

B. Ravi Kumar, Influence of Crystallographic Textures on Tensile Properties of 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 45, pp. 2598-2605, 2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10853-010-4233-x

B. Ravi Kumar, Sailaja Sharma, B. Mahato, Formation of Ultrafine Grained Microstructure in the Austenitic Stainless Steel and its Impact on Tensile Properties, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 528, pp. 2209-2216, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2010.11.034

X. Z. Hou, W. J. Zheng, Z. G. Song, J. M. Long, Effect of Cold Work on Structure and Mechanical Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel, Journal of Iron and Steel Research, Vol. 25, Issue 7, pp. 53-57, 2013.

Mostafa Eskandari, Abbas Zarei-Hanzaki, Hamid Reza Abedi, An Investigation into the Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline Austenitic Stainless Steels, Materials & Design, Vol. 45, pp. 674-681, 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.08.042

M. Eskandari, A. Najafizadeh, A. Kermanpur, Effect of Strain-induced Martensite on the Formation of Nanocrystalline 316L Stainless Steel after Cold Rolling and Annealing, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 519, 46-50, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2009.04.038

J. Z. Lu, K. Y. Luo, D. K. Yang, X. N. Cheng, J. L. Hu, F. Z. Dai, H. Qi, L. Zhang, J. S. Zhong, Q. W. Wang, Y. K. Zhang, Effects of Laser Peening on Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel, Corrosion Science, Vol. 60, pp. 145-152, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2012.03.044

T. L. Prakash, A. U. Malik, Studies on the Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Some Alloys Used in Desalination Plants, Desalination, Vol. 123, Issues 2-3, pp. 215-221, 1999.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0011-9164(99)00079-x

ASTM G 30-97 Standard Practice for Making and Using U-bend Stress-Corrosion Test Specimens, (2003), ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM E 8M-04 Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials [Metric], (2004), ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA.

X. Fang, Z. Fan, B. Ralph, P. Evans, R. Underhill, Effect of Temper Rolling on Tensile Properties of C-Mn Steels, Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 18, pp. 285-288, 2002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/026708301225000734

W. D. Callister, Dislocations and strengthening mechanisms, In W. D. Callister and D. G. Rethwisch (Ed.), Materials science and engineering: an introduction, Eighth Edition, SI Version, (New York: John Wiley & Sons (Asia), 2011, 215-218).

George E. Dieter, Sheet-metal forming, In George E. Dieter (Ed.), Mechanical metallurgy, SI Metric Edition. (London: McGraw-Hill, 1988, 651-662).

ASTM F 139-08 Standard Specification for Wrought 18Chromium-14Nickel-2.5Molybdenum Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip for Surgical Implants (UNS S31673), (2003), ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/f0139-08

Carpenter Technology Corporation Alloy Data, BiodurTM 316LS Stainless, Medical Implant Alloys, Carpenter Technology Corp., Reading, PA, 2/95.

W. M. F. W Mohamad, M. Z. Selamat, B. Bundjali, M. Musa, Effect of Cold Rolling Process on the Microstructure and Corrosion Behaviors of 316L Stainless Steel in Simulated Body Fluids, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 548-549, pp. 310-315, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.548-549.310

Song Ren-bo, Xiang Jian-ying, Hou Dong-po, Characteristics of Mechanical Properties and Microstructure for 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel, Journal of Iron And Steel Research, International, Vol. 18, Issue 11, pp. 53-59, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1006-706x(11)60117-9

Sandip Ghosh Chowdhury, Samar Das, P. K. De, Cold Rolling Behaviour and Textural Evolution in AISI 316L Autenitic Stainless Steel, Acta Materialia, Vol. 53, pp. 3951-3959, 2005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2005.05.006

Paulo Maria de O. Silva, Hamilton Ferreira G. de Abreu, Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque, Pedro de Lima Neto, Joao Manuel R.S. Tavares, Cold Deformation Effect on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of AISI 301LN and 316L Stainless Steels, Materials and Design, Vol. 32, pp. 605–614, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.08.012

Q. Xue, E. K. Cerreta, G. T. Gray III, Microstructural Characteristics of Post-shear Localization in Cold-rolled 316L Stainless Steel, Acta Materialia, Vol. 55, pp. 691–704, 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2006.09.001


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize