Comparison of Different Multi-Strand Tundishes

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


A computational study was carried out to optimize the positions of outlet strands and to compare the operating parameters of two-strand, four-strand and six-strand tundishes. This involved adoption of an Euler-Lagrangian approach to track spherical particles in a steady, three-dimensional flow field obtained by the numerical solutions of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and energy equations. The standard k-ε model and random walk model were used for modeling the turbulence in flow field and paths of inclusions, respectively. For comparison of different tundishes, two methodologies were adopted, first with equal mass flow rate of liquid steel at the inlet gate for all the tundishes considered (i.e., same capacity) and the second with equal mass flow rate of liquid steel leaving through each outlet strand for all the tundishes. It was found that for different tundishes with the same capacity, a change in the number of outlet strands does not have any significant effect on the operating parameters of the tundishes. For the tundishes with the same flow rate at each strand, the removal efficiency of two strand tundish was found to be more compared to that of four-strand and six-strand tundishes
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


CFD; Euler-Lagrangian Method; Particle Tracking; Multi-Strand Tundish; Turbulence

Full Text:



Y. Miki, B.G. Thomas, Modeling of inclusion removal in a tundish, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, Vol. 30, pp. 639 – 654, 1999.

L. Zhang, S. Taniguchi, and K. Cai, Fluid flow and inclusion removal in continuous casting tundish, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, Vol. 31, pp. 253 – 266, 2000.

R.D. Morales, J. de J. Barreto, S. LO´ Pez-Ramirez, J. Palafox-Ramos, and D. Zacharias, Melt flow control in a multistrand tundish using a turbulence inhibitors, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, Vol. 31, pp. 1505 – 1515, 2000.

P. K. Jha, S. K. Dash, Effect of outlet positions and various turbulence models on mixing in a single and multi strand tundish, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. 12, n. 5, pp. 560 – 584, 2002.

H. Kim, Modelling of Transport Phenomena in a delta-shaped, Four-Strand Tundish [Dissertation], McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 2003.

J.P. Rogler, Modeling of inclusion removal in a tundish by gas bubbling [Dissertation], Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2004.

A. Tripathi and S.K. Ajmani, Numerical investigation of fluid flow phenomenon in a curve shaped tundish of billet caster, ISIJ Int., Vol. 45, n. 11, pp. 1616 – 1625, 2005.

H. Lei and Ji-Cheng He, A dynamic model of alumina inclusion collision growth in the continuous caster, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 352, pp. 3772 – 3780, 2006.

L. Zhang, Fluid flow, heat transfer and inclusion motion in molten steel continuous casting tundishes, Fifth International Conference on CFD in the Process Industries, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 2006.

D. Hryb, M. Cardozo, S. Ferro, M. Goldschmit, Particle transport in turbulent flow using both Lagrangian and Eulerian formulations, Int. Comm. in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 36, pp. 451 – 457, 2009.

L.J. Gang, Y.H. Cheng, L. Liu, W.X. Hua, Water modeling of optimizing tundish flow field, Journal of Iron and Steel Research International, Vol. 14, n. 3, pp. 13 – 19, 2007.

Q. Hou, Q. Yue, H. Wang, Z. Zou and A.Yu, Modelling of inclusion motion and flow patterns in swirling flow tundishes with symmetrical and asymmetrical structures, ISIJ Int., Vol. 48, n. 6, pp. 787 – 792, 2008.

S. Yang, L. Zhang, J. Li, K. Peaslee, Structure optimization of horizontal continuous casting tundishes using mathematical modeling and water modeling, ISIJ Int., Vol. 49, n. 10, pp. 1551 – 1560, 2009.

M.J. Zhang, H.Z. Gu, A. Huang, H.X. Zhu, C.J. Deng, Physical and mathematical modeling of inclusion removal with gas bottom-blowing in continuous casting tundish, J. Min. Metall. Sect. B-Metall, Vol. 47, pp. 37 – 44, 2011.

V. Seshadri, C.A. da Silva, I.A. da Silva, E. da Silva and A. Júnior, A physical modelling study of inclusion removal in tundish using inert gas curtain, Tecnol. Metal. Mater. Miner, Vol. 9, n. 1, pp. 22 – 29, 2012.

V. Singh, S.K. Ajmani, A. R. Pal, S.K. Singh and M.B. Denys, Single strand continuous caster tundish furniture comparison for optimal performance, Ironmaking and steelmaking, Vol. 39, n. 3, pp. 171 – 179, 2012.

K. Raghavendra, S. Sarkar, S.K. Ajmani, M.B. Denys, M.K. Singh, Mathematical modelling of single and multi-strand tundish for inclusion analysis, Appl. Math. Modelling, Vol. 37, pp. 6284 – 6300, 2013.

T. Merder, J. Jowsa, A. Boguslawski, The Analysis of the conditions of steel flow in the tundish performed by a numerical methods, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Vol. 50, n. 4, pp. 933 – 953, 2005.

Z. Meijie, G. Huazhi, H. Ao, Z. Hongxi and D. Chengji, Numerical simulation and industrial practice of inclusion removal from molten steel by gas bottom blowing in continuous casting tundish, J. Min. Metall. Sect. B-Metall. B, Vol. 47, n. 2, pp.137-147, 2011.

N. Ding, Y.P. Bao, Q.S. Sun, and L.F. Wang, Optimization of flow control devices in a single-strand slab continuous casting tundish, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, Vol. 18, n. 3, pp. 292 – 296, 2011.

S. Shinde, P. Jha, A. Mujumdar, M. Horio, Fluid flow characteristics and rtd analysis of a single strand tundish, Fifth International Conference on CFD in the Process Industries, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, (2006).

S. Gupta and A. Dewan, Performance optimization of a six-strand tundish, World Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 3, n. 3, pp. 184 – 193, 2013.

A. Dewan, Tackling Turbulent Flows in Engineering, Springer, 2011.

Dewan, A., Gupt, D.P., Sanghi, S., Enhancement of heat transfer through jet impingement by using detached ribs, (2013) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 7 (2), pp. 308-317.

Fluent User Guide, Fluent Inc., Lebanon, 2006.

Jawad, L.H., Abdullah, S., Zulkifli, R., Mahmood, W.M.F.W., Prediction of centrifugal compressor performance by using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), (2012) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 5 (4), pp. 1580-1587.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize