The Impact of Relationship-Focused Supportive Leadership on Attitudes of R&D Professionals

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


Since most R&D leaders lack skills of managing relationships with subordinates considering their technical background. This study divided supportive leadership into relationship-focused and job-focused, and studied the relationships between relationship-focused supportive leaderships and subordinates’ working attitudes. It conducted survey on 300 researchers from four Korean companies, and adopted Structural Equation Modeling as analyzing approach. Findings of the study provide understanding on how R&D managers better their relationship with subordinates by providing relevant support can improve subordinates’ attitudes toward work
Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Relationship-Focused Supportive Leadership; Job Involvement; Work Alienation; Job Satisfaction

Full Text:



P. Hersey, K. H. Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior (6theds.) – Utilizing Human Resources (Prentice Hall, 1993).

H. Mintzberg, Mintzberg on Management: Inside Our Strange World of Organizations (The Free Press, 1989).

D. B. Miller, Managing Professionals in Research and Development (Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1986).

J. A. Rooney, B. H. Gottlieb, Development and Initial Validation of a Measure of Supportive and Unsupportive Managerial Behavior, Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol.71, 2007, pp.186-203.

J. T. Mortimer, J. Lorence, Satisfaction and Involvement: Disentangling a Deceptively Simple Relationship, Social Psychology Quarterly, vol.52 n.4, 1989, pp.249-265.

R. Knoop, Relationships among Job Involvement, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment for Nurses, The Journal of Psychology, vol.129 n.6, 1995, pp.643-649.

M. Banai, W. D. Reisel, The Influence of Supportive Leadership and Job Characteristics on Work Alienation: A Six-Country Investigation, Journal of World Business, vol.42, 2007, pp.463-476.

G. R. Oldham, A. Cummings, Employee Creativity: Personal and Contextual Factors at Work, Academy of Management Journal, vol.39, 1996, pp.607-634.

J. Schaubroeck, L. S. Fink, Facilitation and Inhibiting Effects of Job Control and Social Support on Stress Outcomes and Role Behavior: A Contingency Model, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol.19, 1998, pp.167-195.;2-t

K. S. Cameron, R. E. Quinn, Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture (Jossey-Bass, 1999).

T. M. Lodahl, M. Kejner, The Definition and Measurement of Job Involvement, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.49, 1965, pp.24-33.

R. Dubin, Industrial workers’ worlds: A study of the ‘central life interests’ of industrial workers, Social Problems, vol.3, 1956, pp.131-142.

G., J. Gurin, Veroff, S. Feld, Americans View Their Mental Health (New York: Basic Books, 1960).

S. Misra, R. N. Kanungo, L. V. Rosenstiel, E. A. Stuhler, The Motivational Formulation of Job and Work Involvement: A Cross-National Stud, Human Relations, vol.38 n.6, 1985, pp.501-518.

S. Rabinowitz, D. T. Hall, Organizational Research on Job Involvement, Psychological Bulletin, vol.84, 1977, pp.265-288.

R. N. Kanungo, Measurement of job and work involvement, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.67, 1982, pp.341-349.

T. H. Shore, G. C. Thornton, L. M. Shore, Distinctiveness of Three Work Attitudes: Job Involvement, Organizational Commitment, and Career Salience, Psychological Report, vol.67, 1990, pp.851-858.

J. M. Paterson, M. P. O’Driscoll, An Empirical Assessment of Kanungo’s (1982) Concept and Measure of Job Involvement, Applied Psychology, vol.39 n.3, 1990, pp.293-306.

P. P. Brooke, D. W. Russell, J. L. Price, Discriminant Validition of Measures of Job Satisfaction, Job Involvement, and Organizational Commitment, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.73 n.2, 1988, pp.139-145.

M. A. Dolke, P. K. Srivastava, Need Satisfaction, Job Involvement and Intrinsic Motivation: A Factor Analysis Study, Indian Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.25 n.1, 1988, pp.13-17.

G. J. Blau, A Multiple Study Investigation of the Dimensionality of Job Involvement, Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol.27 n.1, 1985, pp.19-36.

P. C. Morrow, Concept Redundancy in Organizational Research: The Case of Work Commitment, Academy of Management Review, vol.8 n.3, 1983, pp.486-500.

R. S. Schuler, Determinants of Job Involvement: Individual vs. Organizational: An Extension of the Literature, Academy of Management Proceedings, 1975, pp.149-151.

U. Sekaran, R. T. Mowday, A Cross Cultural Analysis of the Influence of Individual and Job Characteristics on Job Involvement, International Review of Applied Psychology, vol.30, 1981, pp.51-64.

R. J. House, P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman, V. Gupta, Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The Global Study of 62 Societies (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publication, 2004).

S. P. Brown, T. W. Leigh, A New Look at Psychological Climate and Its Relationship to Job Involvement, Effort and Performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.81 n.4, 1996, pp.358-368.

A. M. Akel, J. G. Siegel, Participative Management: Thoughts and Prescriptions, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 9 n. 5, 1988, pp.15–25.

Marx/Engels Internet Archive, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 (, written by Karl Marx. first published in 1932).

R. N. Kanungo, Work Alienation: An Integrative Approach (Praeger Publishers, 1982)

R. R. Hirschfeld, H. S. Field, Work Centrality and Work Alienation: Distinct Aspects of a General Commitment to Work, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol.21 n.7, 2000, pp.789-800.;2-w

R. R. Hirschfeld, H. S. Field, A. G. Bedeian, Work Alienation as an Individual-Difference Construct for Predicting Workplace Adjustment: A test in two samples, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.30, 2000, pp.1880- 1902.

S. C. Kobasa, S. R. Maddi, S. Kahn, Hardiness and Health: A Prospective Study, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.42, 1982, pp.168-177.

J. R. Hackman, G. R. Oldham, Work redesign. Reading (Addison-Wesley, 1980).

R. N. Kanungo, The Concepts of Alienation and Involvement Revisited, Psychological Bulletin, vol.86 n.1, 1979, pp.119-138.

M. Csikszentmihalyi, Finding flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life (NY Basic Books, 1997).

R. R. Hirschfeld, Achievement Orientation and Psychological Involvement in Job Tasks: The Interactive Effects of Work Alienation and Intrinsic Job Satisfaction, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.32, 2002, pp.1663-1681.

A. H. Maslow, A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review, vol.50 n.4, 1943, pp.70–396.

D. E. Guest, Human Resource Management and Performance: Still Searching for Some Answers, Human Resource Management Journal, vol.21 n.1, 2011, pp.3-13.

E. A. Locke, The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction, In M. Dunnette (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 1976).

J. K. Harrison, R. Hubbard, Antecedents to Organizational Commitment among Mexican Employees of a U.S. Firm in Mexico, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol.138 n.5, 1998, pp.609-623.

A. P. Brief, L. Roberson, Job Attitude Organization: An Exploratory Study, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.19, 1989, pp.717-727.

P. C. Smith, L. M. Kendall, C. L. Hulin, The Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement: A Strategy for the Study of Attitudes (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969).

R. J. House, Path–Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a Reformulated Theory, Leadership Quarterly, vol.7 n.3, 1996, pp.323−352.

K. S. McGilton, L. McGillis-Hall, W.P.Wodchis, U.Petroz, Supervisory Support, Job Stress, and Job Satisfaction among Long-term Care Nursing Staff, Journal of Nursing Administration, vol.37 n.7/8, 2007, pp.366–372.

B. Schyns, M. V. Veldhoven, S. Wood, Organizational Climate, Relative Psychological Climate and Job Satisfaction: The Example of Supportive Leadership Climate, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol.30 n.7, 2009, pp.649-663.

G. B. Graen, M. A. Novak, P. Sommerkamp, The Effects of Leader-Member Exchange and Job Design on Productivity and Satisfaction: Testing a Dual Attachment Model, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol.30, 1982, pp.109-131.

T. A. Scandura, G. B. Graen, Moderating Effects of Initial Leader-Member Exchange Status on the Effects of a Leadership Intervention, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.69, 1984, pp.428-436.

A. Carmeli, A. Freund, Work Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance: An Empirical Investigation, International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, vol.7 n.3, 2004, pp.289-309.

L. Nystedt, A. Sjoberg, H. Gosta, Discriminant Validation of Measures of Organizational Commitment, Job Involvement and Job Satisfaction Swedish army officers, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol.40 n.11, 1999, pp.49-55.

A. Kuruüzüm, E. I. Çetin, S. Irmak, Path Analysis of Organizational Commitment, Job Involvement and Job Satisfaction in Turkish Hospitality Industry, Tourism Review, vol.64 n.1, 2009, pp.4-16.

A. S. Gechman, Y. Wiener, Job Involvementand Satisfaction as Related to Mental Health and Personal Time Devoted to Work, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.60 n.4, 1975, pp.521–523.

The Ohio State University, Fisher College of Business, Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire. Columbus, OH43210, 1962.

D. J. Weiss, R. V. Dawis, G. W. England, L. H. Lofquist, Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Minneapolis, MN: Industrial Relations Center, University of Minnesota, 1967.

M. I. Paullay, G. M. Alliger, E. F. Stone-Romero, Construct Validation of Two Instruments Designed to Measure Job Involvement and Work Centrality, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.79 n.2, 1994, pp.224-228.

S. R. Maddi, S. C. Kobasa, M. Hoover, An alienation test, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, vol.19, 1979, pp.73-76.

J. C. Anderson, D. W. Gerbing, Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 103 n.3, 1988, pp.411-423

R. P. Bagozzi, Y. Yi, L. W. Phillips, Assessing Construct Validity in Organizational Research, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.36 n.3, 1991, pp.421–458.

J. F. Hair Jr., R. E. Anderson, R. L. Tatham, W. G. Blackm, Multivariate data analysis (4th eds.) (Prentice Hall, 1995).

C. Fornell, D. F. Larcker, Structural Equation Models With Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics, Journal of Marketing Research, vol.18 n.3, 1981, pp.382-388.

C. Fornell, F. L. Bookstein, A Comparative Analysis of Two Structural Equation Models: Lisrel and PLS Applied to Consumer Exit-Voice Theory, Journal of Marketing Research, vol.19 n.4, 1982, pp.440-452.

P. M. Podsakoff, S. B. MacKenzie, J. Y. Lee, N. P. Podsakoff, Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of theLiterature and Recommended Remedies, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.88, 2003, pp.879–903.

G. B. Graen, M. Uhl-Bien, Development of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership Over 25 Years: Applying a Multi-level Multi-domain Perspective, Leadership Quarterly, vol.6, 1995, pp.219-247.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize