A Low Cost Multipurpose Algorithm for Secure Transfer of Medical Images

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


On-line medical image distribution is widely used nowadays between healthcare institutions. Medical images are a type of data requiring a large processing capacity and transmission bandwith, so, compression is often mandatory. Besides, the integrity and confidentiality of image content is a critical issue due to diagnostic and ethics requirements.  In this work, we aim at giving an efficient scheme to provide confidentiality for the transmission of medical images and related data with a minimal computational effort. The proposed system consists of an efficient combination of a lossless compression algorithm, encryption in a CBC mode, and spatial domain watermarking to embed patient information in the related medical image. We demonstrate experimentally that by interleaving basic algorithms for compression, embedding and encryption in a one-pass algorithm, we can achieve better computational performance than by using the same algorithms in separate stages while maintaining the same security level and compression rate.
Copyright © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Medical Images; Compression; Cryptography; Watermarking; Confidentiality

Full Text:



G. Coatrieux, H. Main, B. Sankur, Y. Rolland, and R. Collorec. Relevance of watermarking in medical imaging, Proc. IEEE Conf. Information Technology Applications in Biomedicine, Arlington, USA, 2000, pp 250–252.

G. Coatrieux, H. Maitre, B. Sankur, Strict Integrity Control of Biomedical Images, Proc. Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III, SPIE Vol. 4314, 2001, pp. 229-240.

B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography (2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1996).

W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security : Principles and Practices (3rd edition., Prentice Hall, 2003).

W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, New directions in cryptography, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-26, no 6, 1976, pp. 644-654.

I. Cox, J. Bloom, M. Miller, Digital Watermarking: Principles & Practice, Chaps. 1–2, (Morgan Kauffman Publishers, 2001).

M. M. Yeung and F. Mintzer, An invisible watermarking technique for image verification, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, (Santa Barbara, CA),. 1997.

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, Information Hidding: Steganography and Watermarking - Attacks and Countermeasures (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

B. Macq and F. Dewey. Trusted headers for medical images, Proc. DFG VIII-D II Watermarking Workshop, Erlangen, Germany, 1999.

N. Jagadish, P. S. Bhat, R. Acharya, and U. C. Niranjan, Simultaneous storage of medical images in the spatial and frequency domain : a comparative study, Biomedical Engineering Online, Vol 3, no. 1, 2004.

Kong, X. and Feng, R. Watermarking Medical Signals for Telemedicine. IEEE Trans on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 195-201, Sept. 2001.

D. Anand, U. Niranjan, Watermarking Medical Images with Patient Information, Proc. of IEEE/EMBS Conference, pp. 703-7-6, 1998.

S. Boucherkha, M. Benmohamed, A lossless watermarking based authentication system for medical images, Transactions on Engineering, Computing and Technology, Vol 1, no.1, 2004, pp. 240-243.

S. Boucherkha, M. Benmohamed, A multi-tier architecture to safely share digital medical images, Proc. IEEE Conf. on Dependability of Computer System DepCoS-RELCOMEX, Szklarska Poreba, Poland, 2006, pp 319 – 326.

M. Nishio, Y. Kawashima, S. Nakamuar, and N. Tsukamoto, Development of a digital watermark method suitable for medical images with error correction, RSNA'02, ArchiveSite: http://archive.rsna.org/index.cfm, 2002.

J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, R. Du, Lossless data embedding – new paradigm in digital watermarking, EURASIP Journal of. Applied Signal Processing, vol. 2, pp. 185-196, 2002.

C. W. Honsinger, P. Jones, M. Rabbani, and J. C. Stoffel, Lossless recovery of an original image containing embedded data, US Patent application, Docket No: 77102/E-D, 1999.

A. Maeder, M. Eckert, Medical image compression: Quality and performance issues, SPIE: New Approaches in Medical Image Analysis, 3747, pp. 93–101, 1999.

D. Salomon, Data Compression: The Complete Reference, (3rd Edition, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2004).

P. G. Howard; J. S. Vitter, Fast and efficient lossless image compression, Proc. IEEE Data Compression Conference, pp. 351-360, 1993.

M. J. Weinberger; G. Seroussi; G. Sapiro, LOCO-I: A low complexity, context based, lossless image compression algorithm, Proc. Data Compression conference, Snowbird, Utah, USA, pp. 140-149, 1996.

S. W. Golomb, Run-Length Encodings, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-12, pp. 399-401, 1966.

W. Puech and J. M. Rodrigues, A new crypto-watermarking method for medical images safe transfer, Proc. of the 12th European Signal Processing Conference, Vienna, Austria, 2004, pp 1481–1484.

A. Wakatani, Digital watermarking for ROI medical images by using compressed signature image, Proc. Annual Hawaii Int. Conf. on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA, 2002, pp. 2043– 2048.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize