### Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection of Nanofluid in a Square Enclosure with a Protruding Isothermal Heater

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#### Abstract

This article reports a numerical study on natural convection from a protruding isothermal heater located at the left vertical wall of a square cavity, filled with a water–Al2O3 nanofluid. The right vertical wall of the cavity is cooled isothermally, while the other walls are adiabatic. The effective viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluid are respectively modeled according to Brinkman and Maxwell-Garnetts. Full Navier Stockes and energy equations are solved with finite volume approach using the SIMPLE algorithm. In this study, the influence of some pertinent parameters such as: Rayleigh number, location and geometry of heat source, and the volume fraction of nanoparticles are being studied. Results show that, at a given Rayleigh number and definite heater geometry, the heat transfer is enhanced with increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles. It is also observed that, the heat transfer increased with an increase in the width and the length of the heat source *Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.*

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