Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Loss Reduction Concept Review and Its Comparison for Various Transmission Lines

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



With the application of Electromagnetic, high voltage systems, and physical electronics, this research work aims to increase the efficiency of power transmission with the design of a loss-reduced model in form of cables. The cable design is focused on underground transmission applications, since it requires the most cognitive science and engineering design for the transmission of heavy loads of power over small distances in densely urbanised areas with minimised losses. The AC analysis, thermal, capacitive, inductive, proximity, skin, and corona effects have been considered and have been significantly reduced by implementing various design strategies in the model. This design has been concluded by the comparison of the transmission cable to existing cables of similar physical properties and the observation of a major improvement therein.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Transmission Line; Lossless Transmission Line; Dielectric Material; Conducting Material; Coaxial Cable

Full Text:



I. E. Davidson, Evaluation and effective management of nontechnical losses in electrical power networks, IEEE 6th AAFRICON Conference, George, South Africa, 2-4 Oct. 2002, pp. 473-477.

K. Malmedal, Underground vs. overhead transmission and distribution, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Arvada, June 2009.

South Africa - Electric power transmission and distribution losses, Trading Economics, 2014.

Benato, R., Dambone Sessa, S., Palone, F., Viafora, N., Transient Measurement Campaign on Power Cables Protected by Steel Reinforcement Concrete Slabs, (2017) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 12 (1), pp. 34-42.

Benato, R., Dambone Sessa, S., Pietribiasi, D., A Simple and Precise Method to Assess the Switching Overvoltages in EHV Insulated Cables, (2015) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 10 (4), pp. 528-536.

COMSOL Multiphysics Modeling Software.

Roger W. Pryor, Multiphysics modeling using COMSOL: A first principle approach, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, USA, 2011.

A. Gopalakrishnan, M. Kezunovic, S. M. McKenna, and D. M. Hamai, Fault location using the distributed parameter transmission line model, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1169-1174, Oct. 2000.

Matthew Sadiku, Elements of electromagnetics, Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 2010.

Giovanni Miano and Antonio Maffucci, Transmission lines and lumped circuits - Fundamentals and applications, 1st Ed., Academic Press, 2001.

Yong Wang, Dipanjan Gope, Vikram Jandhyala, and C. J. Richard Shi, Generalized Kirchoff’s current and voltage law formulation for coupled circuit–electromagnetic simulation with surface integral equations, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1673-1682, July 2004.

K. R. Padiyar, Facts controllers in power transmission and distribution, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2007.

Martin Straat, Igor Chmutin, and Antal Boldizar, Dielectric properties of polyethylene foams at medium and high frequencies, Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, vol. 18, pp. 1-10, 2010.

D. Miyagi, Thermal analysis of co-axial multi-layered BSCCO HTS power cable, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1-4, 2010.

Rene Jean Essiambre, Gerhard Kramer, Peter J. Winzer, Gerard J. Foschini, and Bernhard Goebel, Capacity limits of optical fiber networks, Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 662-701, 2010.

Clayton R. Paul, Analysis of multiconductor transmission lines, 2nd Ed., Wiley-IEEE Press, Oct. 2007.

Claus Leth Bak and F. Faria da Silva, High voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission – A review of the Danish experience, part 1, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 140, pp. 984-994, Nov. 2016.

Jichun Li, Eric A. Machorro, and Sidney Shields, Numerical study of signal propagation in corrugated coaxial cables, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 309, pp. 230-243, Jan. 2017.

U. S. Gudmundsdottir, Proximity effect in fast transient simulations of an underground transmission cable, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 115, pp. 50-56, Oct. 2014.

Wai Chen, The electrical engineering handbook, 1st Ed., Academic Press, Elsevier, Oct. 2004.

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,” Science, vol. 289, no. 5478, pp. 415-419, July 2000.

S. Nayak, An integro-differential equation technique for the computation of radiated EMI due to corona on HV power transmission lines, IEEE Transactions on Power, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-5 , 2005.

Fangxing Li, Wei Qiao, Hongbin Sun, Hui Wan, Jianhui Wang Yan Xia, Zhao Xu, and Pei Zhang, Smart transmission grid: vision and framework, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 168-177, Sept. 2010.

Warmi, Y., Michishita, K., Lightning Trip-Out of 150 kV Transmission Line: a Case Study, (2017) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 12 (3), pp. 260-266.

Felipe V. Lopes, Karcius M. Dantas, Kleber M. Silva, and Flavio B. Costa, Accurate two-terminal transmission line fault location using traveling waves, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 873-880, April 2018.

Isabona, J., Srivastava, V., Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment from Mobile Phones Based on Call-Related Factors, (2017) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 10 (5), pp. 355-362.

Reza, R., Srivastava, V., Improving Cell Tower Geo-Location Using Quantum Clock Timing, (2018) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 8 (4), pp. 340-345.

Christophe Caloz and Tatsuo Itoh, Electromagnetic metamaterials: transmission line theory and microwave applications, Wiley-IEEE Press, Nov. 2005.

Sofiane Chabane, Philippe Besnier, and Marco Klingler, A modified enhanced transmission line theory applied to multiconductor transmission lines, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 518-528, April 2017.

Akira Ishimaru, Electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation, and scattering: From fundamentals to applications, 2nd Ed., Wiley, 2017.

M. A. Prsa, Skin effect and proximity effect in a real, high voltage, double three-phase system, IEEE Transactions on power delivery, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2011.

Daniel H. Waters, Joseph Hoffman, Eva Hakansson, and Maciej Kumosa, Low-velocity impact to transmission line conductors, International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 106, pp. 64-72, Aug. 2017.

H. S. Ruiz, X. Zhang, and T. A. Coombs, Resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters: concepts, materials, and numerical modeling, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1-5, June 2015.

A. D. Rajapakse, A. M. Gole, and P. L. Wilson, Electromagnetic transients simulation models for accurate representation of switching losses and thermal performance in power electronic systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 319-327, Jan. 2005.

COMSOL, AC/DC module user's guide, Version 5.2, pp. 290-300, 2015.

Frank P. Incropera, David P. Dewitt, Theodore L. Bergman, and Adrienne S. Lavine, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 6th Ed., John Wiley and Sons, 2007.

Theodore L. Bergman, David P. Dewitt, Frank P. Incropera and Adrienne S. Lavine, Introduction to heat transfer, 6th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

Liu Ying and Cao Xiaolong, Electrical tree initiation in XLPE cable insulation by application of DC and impulse voltage, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1691-1698, Oct. 2013.

H. A. Illias, H. Mokhlis, M. S. B. Ibrahim, and A. H. A Bakar Temperature increment in high voltage copper conductor under various applied current waveforms, IEEE 8th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference, Langkawi, Malaysia, 24-25 March 2014, pp. 64-67.

R. Olsen, Modelling of dynamic transmission cable temperature considering soil-specific heat, thermal resistivity, and precipitation, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1909-1917, July 2013.

Data sheet. Aberdare,

Online Tool, Nexans, data sheets and calculators.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize