Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Sliding Mode Control Strategy for a Grid-Supporting and Grid-Forming Power Converter in Autonomous AC Microgrids

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



This paper presents a sliding mode control technique combined with voltage orientation for grid-supporting and grid-forming (GSGFm) function in a power converter, used in AC microgrid during island operation. The robustness sliding mode control method (SMC) can provide stability control system and fast dynamic response. Therefore, a control law is designed using sliding mode techniques, which is based on the combination of continuous and discrete signals to generate the robustness system from uncertainties and disturbances. A sliding mode control approach is adopted in this paper in order to enhance for the inner control loops (level 0) to improve the dynamic response of a lowest hierarchical level based on droop regulated-microgrids. The main objectives of the proposed SMC technique are to keep frequency and voltages at normal values, according to the actual real-reactive power loads absorption. SMC has also produced the reference frequency and the voltage signals. Thereupon, the dynamic frequency and voltage can be regulated with a new control approach and can guarantee power reliability, quality and efficiency during this mode. Finally, the model and the controller design are validated by simulation and experimental results. The results show that the proposed SMC technique can be implemented in a GSGFm power converter for AC microgrid.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Voltage-Oriented Control; Sliding Mode Control (SMC); Grid-Supporting and Grid-Forming (GSGFm); Power Converter; Autonomous AC Microgrids

Full Text:



A. Mukhtar, Operation and Control of Renewable Energy Systems, 1 (New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2018, 1-22).

A. M. Bouzid, J.M. Guerrero, A. Cheriti, M. Bouhamida, P. Sicard, M. Benghanem, A survey on control of electric power distributed generation systems for microgrid applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 44, April 2015, pp.751-766.

A. Ovalle, G. Ramos, S. Bacha, A. Hably, A. Rumeau, Decentralized Control of Voltage Source Converters in Microgrids based on the Application of Instantaneous Power Theory, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, February 2015, pp.1152–1162.

H. Abu-Rub, M. Malinowski, K. Al-Haddad, Power Electronics For Renewable Energy Systems, Transportation And Industrial Applications, 9 (West Sussex: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2014, 231-270).

L. Fusheng, L. Ruisheng, Z. Fengquan, Microgrid Technology and Engineering Application, 2 (Academic Press, 2016, 13-27).

T. L. Vandoorn, J. C. Vasquez, J. D. Kooning, J. M. Guerrero, L. Vandevelde, Microgrids: Hierarchical Control and an Overview of the Control and Reserve Management Strategies, IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, vol. 7, December 2013, pp. 42-55.

D. E. Olivares, A. Mehrizi-Sani, A. H. Etemadi, Trends in Microgrid Control, IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, vol. 5, July 2014, pp. 1905-1919.

M. R. Aghamohammadi, H. Abdolahinia, A new approach for optimal sizing of battery energy storage system for primary frequency control of islanded Microgrid, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 54, January 2014, pp. 325-333.

C.N. Rown, Enhanced Power Frequency Droop Control for microgrids, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia, 2013.

A. Moreno-Munoz, Large Scale Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Sources, 6 (Stevenage: United Kingdom, 2017, 171-201).

J. Rocabert, A. Luna, F. Blaabjerg, P. Rodriguez, Control of Power Converters in AC Microgrids, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 27, November 2012, pp. 4734–4749.

A. Paquette, Power Quality and Inverter-Generator Interactions in Microgrids, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. and Com. Eng., Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia, 2014.

S. Khongkhachat, S. Khomfoi, Droop control strategy of AC Microgrid in Islanding Mode, The 18th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems ~ICEMS 2015~, October 25-28, 2015, Pattaya, Thailand.

E. Ortjohann, W. Sinsukthavorn, M. Lingemann, N. Hamsic, M. Hoppe, P. Wirasanti, A. Schmelter, S. Jaloudi, D. Morton, Recycling Hierarchical Control Strategy of Conventional Grids for Decentralized Power Supply Systems, 15 (Shanghai: InTech, 2012, 319-330).

J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vasquez, J. Matas, L. G. De Vicuna, M. Castilla, Hierarchical Control of Droop-Controlled AC and DC Microgrid-A General Approach Toward Standardization, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, January 2011, pp. 158–172.

S. Khongkhachat, S. Khomfoi, Hierarchical Control Strategies in AC Microgrids, The 12th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/ Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology ~ECTICON 2015~, June 24-27, 2015, Hua Hin, Thailand.

J.M. Guerrero, M. Chandorkar, T.L. Lee, P.L. Loh, Advanced Control Architectures for Intelligent Microgrid-Part I: Decentralized and Hierarchical, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, April 2013, pp. 1254–1262.

A.M. Bouzid, P. Sicard, A. Yamane, J. Paquin, Simulation of Droop Control Strategy for Parallel Inverters in Autonomous AC Microgrids, The 8th International Conference on Modeling, Identification and Control ~ICMIC 2016~, November 15-17, 2016, Algiers, Algeria.

V. Utkin, J. Guldner, J. Shi, Sliding Mode Control in Electromechanical systems, 1 (Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, 1999, 1-13).

Y. Fu, H. Zhang, Y. Mi, L. Huang, , Z. Li, J. Wang, Control strategy of DFIG in hybrid micro-grid using sliding mode frequency controller and observer, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 12, June 2018, pp. 2662–2669.

A. Merabet, K.T. Ahmed, H. Ibrahim, R. Beguenane, Implementation of Sliding Mode Control System for Generator and Grid Sides Control of Wind Energy Conversion System, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 7, July 2016, pp. 1327–1335.

R.K. Patnaik, P.K. Dash, Fast adaptive back-stepping terminal sliding mode power control for both the rotor-side as well as grid-side converter of the doubly fed induction generator-based wind farms, IET Renewable Power Generation, vol. 12, April 2016, pp. 598–610.

F. Sebaaly, H. Vahedi, H.Y. Kanaan, N. Moubayed, K. Al-Haddad, Design and Implementation of Space Vector Modulation-Based Sliding Mode Control for Grid-Connected 3L-NPC Inverter, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, December 2016, pp. 7854–7863.

I. M. Hassine, M. W. Naouar, N. Mrabet-Bellaaj, Mode Predictive-Sliding Mode Control for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Converter, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, February 2017, pp. 1341–1349.

A. Hemdani, M. Dagbagi, W. M. Naouar, L. Idkhajine, I.S. Belkhodja, E. Monmasson, Indirect sliding mode power control for three phase grid connected power converter, IET Power Electronics, vol. 8, June 2015, pp. 977–985.

M. B. Delghavi, S. Shoja-Majidabad, A. Yazdani, Fractional-Order Sliding-Mode Control of Islanded Distributed Energy Resource Systems, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 7, October 2016, pp. 1482–1491.

A. Reama, F. Mehazzem, A. Cela, Cascade Sliding Mode Control of a Field Oriented Induction Motors with Varying Parameters, The 5th International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals and Devices, July 20-22, 2008, Amman, Jorden.

E. Monmasson, Power Electronic Converters, 12 (New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2011, 350-385).

M. Rezkallah, S. Sharma, A. Chandra, B. Singh, D.R. Rousse, Lyapunov Function and Sliding Mode Control Approach for Solar-PV Grid Interface System, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, January 2017, pp. 785–795.

G. Rigatos, P. Siano, N. Zervos, C. Cecati, Decentralised control of parallel inverters connected to microgrid using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter, IET Power Electronics, vol. 8, July 2016, pp. 1164-1180.

J. Miret, J.L.G. Vicuna, R. Guzman, A. Camacho, M.M. Ghahderijani, A Flexible Experimental Laboratory for Distributed Generation Networks Based on Power Inverters, Energies, 10(10), October, 2017.

J.Y. Hung, W. Gao, J.C. Hung, Variable Structure Control: A Survey, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, February 1993, pp. 2–22.

S. Tan, Y. Lai, C.K. Tse, Sliding Mode Control of Switching Power Converters, 1 (Florida: Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, 1-16).

H. Markiewicz, A. Klajn, Voltage Disturbances, Power Quality Application Guide, 5.4.2., July 2004.

Lahssan, B., Bakhti, M., Bououlid Idrissi, B., Flexible Manipulator State Reconstruction Using Luenberger and First Order Sliding Mode Observers Under Parametric Uncertainties, (2016) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 9 (6), pp. 427-434.

Othmani, H., Sassi, F., Mezghani, D., Mami, A., Comparative Study between Fuzzy Logic Control and Sliding Mode Control for Optimizing the Speed Deportment of a Three Phase Induction Motor, (2016) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 9 (3), pp. 175-181.

Di Noia, L., Del Pizzo, A., Meo, S., Reduced-Order Averaged Model and Non-Linear Control of a Dual Active Bridge DC-DC Converter for Aerospace Applications, (2017) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 10 (5), pp. 259-266.

Tesfahunegn, S., Hajizadeh, A., Undeland, T., Ulleberg, O., Vie, P., Modelling and Control of Grid-Connected PV/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System, (2018) International Journal on Energy Conversion (IRECON), 6 (5), pp. 168-177.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize