Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Intelligent Backstepping Control of Variable Speed DFIG-Wind Turbine Under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization

Youssef Majdoub(1*), Ahmed Abbou(2), Mohamed Akherraz(3), Rachid El Akhrif(4)

(1) Moahammadia School of Engineering, Morocco
(2) Moahammadia School of Engineering, Morocco
(3) Moahammadia School of Engineering, Morocco
(4) Moahammadia School of Engineering, Morocco
(*) Corresponding author



This paper deals with the problem of controlling a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) coupled to a wind turbine to enhance the wind integration under unbalanced grid operations. Previous works generally designed the control for DFIG based on standard models assuming that the iron losses are neglected. Also, the main negative aspect of the use of DFIGs is their large sensitivity to grid disturbances, principally to asymmetrical voltage dips. Moreover, in most controllers it is required that wind speed distribution along the turbine blades is known. The contribution of this paper is to present a novel nonlinear control scheme using an intelligent Backstepping approach implemented in both the dq+ and dq- reference frames rotating to achieve an optimal varying speed control under unbalanced grid operations involving online wind speed estimation and the iron losses. The control objective is threefold: (i) tracking the maximum available wind power to ensure the achievement of maximum power point (MPPT) based on the wind speed estimate; (ii) keeping a safe operation of the DFIG and wind speed estimator during unbalanced grid voltage conditions; (iii) efficient tuning based on Genetic Algorithm to determine the optimal parameters of the Backstepping controller. The performances of the control laws are validated by simulation studies on a 4 kW DFIG wind generation system during steady-state and transient grid unbalance using Matlab/Simulink® environment.
Copyright © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Unbalanced Grid Voltage; Intelligent Backstepping Control; Genetic Algorithm Optimization; MPPT; Wind Speed Estimation; DFIG; Iron Losses

Full Text:



Kurian, S., Sindhu, T.K., Cheriyan, E.P., Review on developments in wind energy generation and its integration to utility grid, (2013) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 6 (5), pp. 1523-1532.

Zhang, J.-P., Cheng, H.-Z., Wan, Z.-D., Yao, L.-Z., Joint optimization between power sources and transmission expansion planning considering integration of large scale wind power, (2013) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 8 (6), pp. 1815-1822.

Kerdphol, T., Hongesombut, K., Weerakamaeng, Y., Robust interline power flow controller design for damping of low frequency oscillations in power system with wind power sources, (2013) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 6 (2), pp. 127-133.

Chakib, R., Essadki, A., Cherkaoui, M., Modeling and control of a wind system based on a DFIG by active disturbance rejection control, (2014) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 7 (4), pp. 626-637.

Boukhriss, A., Nasser, T., Essadki, A., Bouallouch, A., Improved control for DFIG used in wind energy conversion systems, (2014) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 7 (4), pp. 403-411.

Kerrouche, K.D., Mezouar, A., Boumediene, L., Belgacem, K., Modeling and optimum power control based DFIG wind energy conversion system, (2014) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 9 (1), pp. 174-185.

Y.S. Rao, A.J. Laxmi, Direct torque control of doubly fed induction generator based wind turbine under voltage dips, International journal of advances in engineering & technology, vol. 3, May 2012, pp. 711-720.

Y. Zhou, P. Bauer, J. A. Ferreira, J. Pierik, Operation of Grid-Connected DFIG Under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Condition, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 24, No. 1, March 2009.

M. Farshadnia, S. A. Taher, Current-based direct power control of a DFIG under unbalanced grid voltage, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol.62, 2014, pp. 571–582.

J. Hu, Y. He, DFIG wind generation systems operating with limited converter rating considered under unbalanced network conditions-Analysis and control design, Renewable Energy, vol. 36, 2011, pp. 829-847

N. Amuthan, P. Subburaj, P. M. Mary, Voltage sag ride through using Improved Adaptive Internal Model Controller for doubly fed induction generator wind farms, Computers and Electrical Engineering, 2013.

M. Sleiman, B.Kedjar, A. Hamadi, K. Al-Haddad, H.Y. Kanaan, Modeling, control and simulation of DFIG for maximum power point tracking, IEEE ASCC Conference, 2013, pp.1-6.

S. Ghosh, Closed loop control of a DFIG based wind power system, IEEE ISGT Asia Conference, 2013, pp.1-6.

A.M. Sylla, M.L. Doumbia, Maximum power control of grid-connected DFIG-based wind systems, IEEE EPEC Conference, 2012, pp.267-273.

Y. Majdoub, A. Abbou, M. Akherraz, Variable Speed Control of DFIG-Wind Turbine with Wind Estimation, IEEE International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), October 2014, pp.268-274.

D.G. Meyer, S. Srinivasan, G. Semrau, Dynamic wind estimation based control for small wind turbines, Renewable Energy, vol. 50, February 2013, pp.259-267.

Wei Qiao, Intelligent Mechanical Sensorless MPPT Control for Wind Energy Systems, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012, pp.1-8.

J. Hu, Y. He, H. Nian, Enhanced control of DFIG used back-to-back PWM VSC under unbalanced grid voltage conditions, J Zhejiang Univ Sci A,vol. 8(8), 2007, pp.1330-1339.

B. I. Nass, T. M. Undeland, T. Gjengedal, for Reduction of Voltage Unbalance in Weak Grids Connected to Wind Plants, IEEE Workshop on Wind Power and the Impacts on Power Systems, 2002.

L. Xu, Coordinated Control of DFIG’s Rotor and Grid Side Converters During Network Unbalance, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,vol. 23, May 2008, pp.1041-1049.

L. Fan, H. Yin, R. Kavasseri, Negative Sequence Compensation Techniques of DFIG-based Wind Energy Systems under Unbalanced Grid Conditions, Power Electronics and Machines in Wind Applications (IEEE Conference), June 24-26,2009, Lincoln, NE, pp.1-6.

J. Hu, Y. He, L. Xu, B. W. Williams, Improved Control of DFIG Systems During Network Unbalance Using PI–R Current Regulators, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, No. 2, February 2009, pp.439-451.

P. Pura, G. Iwanski, Direct Power Control of DFIG Connected to Unbalanced Power Grid, Eighth International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (IEEE), 2013.

M. J. Zandzadeh, A. Vahedi, Modeling and improvement of direct power control of DFIG under unbalanced grid voltage condition, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 59, 2014, pp. 58–65.

M. MOUTCHOU, H. MAHMOUDI, A. ABBOU, New Technique of Backstepping Control Parameters Determination Using Genetic Algorithm, The 2th International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference , October 17-19,2014, Ouarzazate, Morroco.

M. Bašic´, D. Vukadinovic´, G. Petrovic´, Dynamic and pole-zero analysis of self-excited induction generator using a novel model with iron losses, Electrical Power and Energy Systems,vol 42,2012,pp. 105–118.

I. Boldea, SA. Nasar, The induction machine handbook, (CRC Press; 2002).

J.O.M. Rubioa, L.T. Aguilara, Maximizing the performance of variable speed wind turbine with nonlinear output feedback control, Procedia Engineering, vol. 35, 2012, pp.31-40.

A. R.Sahab , M. T. Ziabari, Generalized Backstepping Control for DC Motor, The International Conference on Systems, Signal Processing and Electronics Engineering (ICSSEE'2012) December 26-27, 2012, Dubai (UAE), pp. 475 – 480.

Y.L. Karnavas, K.S. Dedousis, Overall performance evaluation of evolutionary designed conventional AGC controllers for interconnected electric power system studies in a deregulated market environment, International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010, pp. 150-166.

I. Erlich, U. Bachmann, Grid Code Requirements Concerning Connection and Operation of Wind Turbines in Germany, Power Engineering Society General Meeting (IEEE), Vol. 2,2005, pp. 1253 – 1257.

A. Gashi1, G. Kabashi1, S. Kabashi, S. Ahmetaj, V. Veliu1, Simulation the Wind Grid Code Requirements for Wind Farms Connection in Kosovo Transmission, Energy and Power Engineering, Vol.4, 2012, pp. 482-495.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2019 Praise Worthy Prize