Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Adaptive and Automatic Closed-Loop Coordinated Voltage Control Based Model for Optimal Voltage Control: a Case Study

Sheikh Kamar Bin Sheikh Abdullah(1*), M. K. N. M. Sarmin(2), N. Saadun(3), M. T. Azmi(4), I. Z. Abidin(5), I. Musirin(6)

(1) TNB Research Sdn. Bhd, Malaysia
(2) TNB Research Sdn. Bhd, Malaysia
(3) TNB Research Sdn. Bhd, Malaysia
(4) TNB Research Sdn. Bhd, Malaysia
(5) Collage of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia
(6) Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding author



Effective and efficient management of voltage control devices and reactive power resources is one of the most challenging tasks in power system operation. The need for proper voltage control is mainly to fulfill the following requirements: system security, economic operation and voltage quality. In Malaysian Transmission System (MTS), most of the voltage control devices and reactive power resources are manually control. Since the guidelines for controlling the primary and secondary voltage control are broad in nature, control actions could vary from one operator to another depending on experience, system information and knowledge. Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) as system operator for MTS System believes that improvement in the approach and methods for voltage controls are desirable. This paper presents the newly developed hierarchical voltage control system called Adaptive and Automatic Closed-Loop Coordinated Voltage Control (A2CLCVC) based system model as a possible solution for better voltage control within Malaysia Transmission System. The A2CLCVC system model is basically a hierarchical voltage control approach that operates at three different voltage control levels which consists of Tertiary, Secondary and Primary voltage control modules. The A2CLCVC based system model will be used to coordinate and optimize the voltage control operation in order to improve security, quality and economic of Malaysian Transmission System. To verify the A2CLCVC model system performance, two new simulation methodologies based on PSS/E simulation software has been developed: 24-hours Load Flow Python-programming (24LFP-PSS/EM) and 24-hours dynamic simulation based method (24DS-PSS/EM). The two simulation methodologies results has shown that the proposed A2CLCVC system can provide great benefits to TNB especially for better voltage control and power system operational. The comparative studies with the commercial automatic voltage control system have shown that the performance of A2CLCVC system is much similar.
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Coordinated Voltage Control; Tertiary Voltage Control; Secondary Voltage Control; Primary Voltage Control; Adaptive and Close-Loop Control Strategy

Full Text:



CIGRE Publication No.310 “Coordinated Voltage Control in Transmission Networks”, February 2007

J. Van Hecke, N. Janssens, J. Deuse, GF. Promel “Coordinated Voltage Control Experience in Belgium” CIGRE 2000

J.P. Paul, C. Corroyer, P. Jeannel, J.M. Tesseron, F. Maury, A. Torra “Improvements in the organization of secondary voltage control in France”, CIGRE Paris 1990, Report 38/39-03

J.P. Paul, J.Y. Leost, J.M. Tesseron “Survey of the secondary voltage control in France: Present realization and investigations”, IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, May 1987

V. Arcidiacono “Automatic Voltage Reactive Power Control in Transmission System”, CIGRE IFAC Survey Paper E, Florence, September 1983

M. D. Ilic “Secondary voltage control using pilot information,” IEEE Transaction Power Systems, vol.3, May 1988

P. Lagonotte, J. C. Sabonnadiere, J.Y. Leost, J.P. Paul “Structural analysis of the electrical system: application to secondary voltage control in France,” IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, vol. 4, pp. 479-486, May 1989

H. Lefebvre, D. Fragnier, J.Y. Boussion, P. Mallet, and M. Bulot “Secondary coordinated voltage control system: feedback of EDF,” Proceeding 2000 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 290-295

S. Corsi "The Secondary Voltage Regulation in Italy", Panel Session-2000 IEEE PES Summer Meeting, Seattle, USA

S. Corsi, M. Pozzi, C. Sabelli, A. Serrani “The Coordinated Automatic Voltage Control of the Italian Transmission Grid, Part I: Reasons Of The Choice And Overview Of The Consolidated Hierarchical System”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, November 2004

S. Corsi, M. Pozzi, Milan, M. Sforna, G. Dell’Olio “The Coordinated Automatic Voltage Control of the Italian Transmission Grid, Part II: Control Apparatuses and Field Performance of the Consolidated Hierarchical System”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 19, n. 4, pp. 1733-1741, 2004

V. Arcidiacono, S. Corsi, A. Natale, C. Raffaelli, V. Menditto “New developments in the application of ENEL transmission system voltage and reactive power automatic control”, CIGRE Session 1990 rapport 38/39-06

C. W. Taylor, D. C. Erickson, K. E. Martin, R. E. Wilson, and M. V. Venkatasubramanian “WACS-wide-area stability and voltage control system: R&D and online demonstration,” IEEE Special Issue on Energy Infrastructure Defense System, 2005.

C. W. Taylor, M. V. Venkatasubramanian, and Y. Chen “Wide-are stability and voltage control,” Proc. 2000 VII Symposium of Specialist in Electrical Operational and Expansion Planning, pp. 1-8

S. Koishikawa, S. Ohsaka, M. Suzuki, T. Michigami, and M. Akimoto, “Adaptive control of reactive power supply enhancing voltage stability of a bulk power transmission system and a new scheme of monitor on voltage security,” Proc. 1990 CIGRÉ, pp. 38/39–01

H. Sun, Q. Guo, B. Zhang, W. Wu and J. Tong “Development and Applications of System-wide Automatic Voltage Control System in China,” Proc. 2009 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, pp. 1-5

Z. Yan, N. D. Xiang, B. M. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, T. S. Chung “A Hybrid Decoupled Approach to Optimal Power Flow”, IEEE Transactions on Power System, Vol. 11, 02 May 1996

Hongbin Sun, Qinglai Guo, Boming Zhang, Wenchuan Wu, Bin Wang “An Adaptive Zone Division Based Automatic Voltage Control System with Applications in China”, IEEE Transactions on Power System Vol. 28, 2013

Karthikaikannan, D., Ravi, G., Optimal reactive power dispatch of power system using improved harmony search algorithm, (2014) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 9 (3), pp. 620-628.

J. L. Sancha, J. L. Fernandez, A. Cortes and J. T. Abarca “Secondary Voltage Control: Analysis, Solutions, Simulation Results for the Spanish Transmission System”, IEEE Transaction Power System, Vol. 11, May 1996

L. Layo, L. Martin and M.Álvarez “Final Implementation of a Multilevel Strategy for Voltage and Reactive Control in the Spanish Electrical Power System”, PCI 2000 Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K.,

G. Taranto, N. Martins, A. C. B. Martins, D. M. Falcao and M. G. Dos Santos “Benefits of Applying Secondary Voltage Control Schemes to the Brazilian System”, IEEE/PES Summer Meeting, July 2000 Seattle, USA

J.L. Sancha, J.L. Fern´andez, F. Mart´ınez, and C. Salle, “Spanish practices in reactive power management and voltage control”, IEE Colloquium on International Practices in Reactive Power Control, April 1993.

E. Lobato, L. Rouco, T.G.S. Rom´an, F. Echavarren, M.I. Navarrete, R. Casanova, and G. Lopez “Hourly solution of voltage constraints in the Spanish electricity market” Power Engineering Society Meeting, 13-17 July 2003

TNB Transmission System Reliability Standards, TNB Document ver. 2.0 ed. 1.0, January 2006

S.K.S Abdullah, N.H.M. Hamdan and M.K.N.M. Sarmin “A Systematic Study on Coordinated Voltage Control for TNB Transmission Network”, TNBR Final Report, February 2011

Sheikh Kamar B. Sheikh Abdullah, Nik Sofizan B. Nik Yusuf, Danial B. Mohd Nor, Ismail B. Musirin, Izham B. Zainal Abidin, “Overview of Voltage Control and Potential Applications of Secondary Voltage Regulations in Malaysia Tenaga Nasional Berhad Grid System”, IASTED European Conference on Power and Energy System, June 22 – 24, 2011, Greece

S.K.S. Abdullah, I.Z. Abidin, I. Musirin, D.M. Noor “Modeling of Secondary Voltage Regulation for 24-Hour Load Flow and Dynamic Simulation for Coordinated Voltage Control Application”, IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development, December 19 – 20, 2011, Malaysia

S.K.S. Abdullah, I.Z. Abidin, I. Musirin, D.M. Noor “Development of 24-Hour Dynamic Simulation Tool based on PSS/E Software for Optimal Coordinated Voltage Control Application”, UNITEN Student Conference on Research and Development, November 2, 2011, Malaysia

Mohd Khairun Nizam Mohd Sarmin, Ir. Sheikh Kamar Sheikh Abdullah, Faten Hamina Ismail, Nira Saadun, Muhamad Tarmizi Azmi “A Systematic Study of System-wide Automatic Coordinated Voltage Control for TNB System”, IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Asia, May 20 – 23, 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Sheikh Kamar Sheikh Abdullah, Muhamad Tarmizi Azmi, Mohd Khairun Nizam Mohd Sarmin, Nira Saadun “Development of Power Plant High-Side Voltage Controller for Coordinated Voltage Control in TNB System” Conference on Electrical Power Engineering and Application (ICEPEA 2014), November 14 – 16, 2014, Langkawi, Malaysia.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2022 Praise Worthy Prize