Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Virtual Camera Movement with Particle Swarm Optimization and Local Regression

Delta Ardy Prima(1*), Mochamad Hariadi(2), I. Ketut Eddy Purnama(3), Tsuyoshi Usagawa(4)

(1) Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Indonesia
(2) Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Indonesia
(3) Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Indonesia
(4) Kumamoto University, Japan
(*) Corresponding author


DOI: https://doi.org/10.15866/irecos.v11i9.9801

Abstract


Manually placing and animating virtual camera in a dynamic virtual environment to generate computer animation is a complex and time-consuming process. For this reason, this paper proposes a method to take the sequential shot by gameplay, to determine the best camera placement candidates as an unorganized point set, to reconstruct a curve by the point set using local regression technique and to generate smooth camera movement based on those curves. Finally, the paper presents the application of this algorithm and it analyzes a number of problems in different dynamic virtual environments.
Copyright © 2016 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.

Keywords


Dynamic Environments; Gameplay; Virtual Camera; Virtual Cinematography

Full Text:

PDF


References


R. Ranon, L. Chittaro and F. Buttusi, "Automatic Camera Control Meets Emergency Simulation : An Application to Aviation Safety," Computer & Graphics, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cag.2015.03.005

D. Arijon, Grammar of the Film Language, Hasting House Publishers, 1976.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-240-80940-3.50008-8

J. Bennett and C. P. Carter, "Adopting virtual production for animated filmaking," in 7th Annual International Conference on Computer Games, Multimedia and Allied Technology (CGAT 2014), Singapore, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5176/2251-1679_cgat14.21

J. Chen and P. Carr, "Autonomous Camera Systems: A Survey," in Twenty-Eighth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence Intelligent Cinematography and Editing, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702(86)90076-7

P. Burelli and M. Preuss,, "Automatic Camera Control: A Dynamic Multi-Objective Perspective," in Applications of Evolutionary Computation, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45523-4_30

Q. Galvane, R. Ronfard, M. Christie and N. Szilas, "Narrative-Driven Camera Control for Cinematic Replay of Computer Games," in Motion In Games, Los Angeles, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2668064.2668104

P. Knöbelreiter, R. Berndt , T. Ullrich and D. W. Fellner, "Automatic fly-through camera animations for 3D architectural repositories," in Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (GRAPP), Lisbon, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5220/0004670303350341

L. Wang , Z. Zhen , X. Zhang and M. Sato, "Adaptive camera control method for efficient stereoscopic photography," in International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Taipei, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icit.2016.7474840

Q. Galvane, J. Fleureau, F.-L. Tariolle and P. Guillotel, "Automated Cinematography with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles," in WICED: Eurographics Workshop on Intelligent Cinematography and Editing, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2935620.2935622

J. Fleureau, Q. Galvane, F.-L. Tariolle and P. Guillotel, "Generic Drone Control Platform for Autonomous Capture of Cinema Scenes," in 2nd Workshop on Micro Aerial Vehicle Networks, Systems, and Applications for Civilian Use, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2935620.2935622

N. Joubert, M. Roberts, A. Truong, F. Berthouzoz and P. Hanrahan, "An interactive tool for designing quadrotor camera shots," ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), vol. 34, no. 6, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2816795.2818106

S. M. Drucker and D. Zeltzer, "Intelligent Camera Control in a Virtual Environment," in Proceedings of Graphics Interface, 1994.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/199404.199428

L.-w. He, D. H. Salesin and M. F. Cohen, "The Virtual Cinematographer:A Paradigm for Automatic Real-Time Camera Control and Directing," in SIGGRAPH '96 Proceedings of the 23rd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 1996.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/237170.237259

W. H. Bares, J. P. Grégoire and J. C. Lester, "Realtime Constraint-Based Cinematography for Complex Interactive 3D Worlds," in Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 1998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/268389.268405

W. H. Bares, S. McDermott, . C. Boudreaux and . S. Thainimit, "Virtual 3D camera composition from frame constraints," in ACM International Conference on Multimedia, 2000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/354384.354463

D. K. Elson and M. O. Riedl, "A Lightweight Intelligent Virtual Cinematography System for Machinima Production," in Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4108/icst.intetain2008.2473

P. Burelli, L. D. Gaspero, A. Ermetici and R. Ranon, "Virtual Camera Composition with Particle Swarm Optimization," in Smart Graphics, 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-85412-8_12

E. E. Soares de Lima, A. E. Ciarlini and B. Feijó, "Support Vector Machines for Cinematography Real-Time Camera Control in Storytelling Environments," in Brazilian Symposium on Digital Games and Entertainm, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/sbgames.2009.14

P. Burelli and A. Jhala, "Dynamic Artificial Potential Fields for Autonomous Camera Control," in Artificial Intelligence for Interactive Digital Entertainment, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-4560-52-8_56-1

D. Markowitz, A. Shoulson, N. I. Badler and J. T. Kider.Jr, "Intelligent Camera Control Using Behavior Trees," in 4th International Conference, MIG 2011, Edinburgh, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25090-3_14

Q. Galvane, M. Christie, R. Ronfard, C.-K. Lim and M.-P. Cani, "Steering Behaviors for Autonomous Cameras," in Motion in Games, 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2522628.2522899

D. A. Prima, B. B. Ferial Java, E. Suryapto and M. Hariadi, "Secondary Camera Placement using Behavior Trees," in 2013 International Conference on QiR (Quality in Research), Yogyakarta, 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/qir.2013.6632544

R. Ranon and . T. Urli, "Improving the Efficiency of Viewpoint Composition," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 795 - 807, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tvcg.2013.2297932

P. Burelli and G. N. Yannakakis, "A Benchmark for Virtual Camera Control," in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16549-3_37

Q. Galvane, M. Christie, C. Lino and R. Ronfard, "Camera-on-rails: Automated Computation of Constrained Camera Paths," in Motion in Games, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2822013.2822025

D. B. Christianson, S. E. Anderson, L. W. He, D. H. Salesin, D. S. Weld and M. S. Cohen, "Declarative camera control for automatic cinematography," in Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 1996.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/237170.237259

S. M. Drucker, T. A. Galyean and D. Zeltzer, "Cinema : a system for procedural camera Movements," in Proceedings of the 1992 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, New York, 1992.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/147156.147166

C. Callaway, E. Not, A. Novello, C. Rocchi, O. Stock and M. Zancanaro, "Automatic cinematography and multilingual NLG for generating video documentaries," Artificial Intelligence, p. 57–89, 2005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artint.2005.02.001

D. Friedman and Y. A. Feldman, "Automated cinematic reasoning about camera behavior," Expert Systems with Applications, p. 694–704, 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2005.07.027

A. Z. Fanani , D. A. Prima, B. B. F. Java, E. Suryapto, M. Hariadi and I. K. E. Purnama, "Secondary camera movement in machinema using path finding," in International Conference on Technology, Informatics, Management, Engineering, and Environment (TIME-E), 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/time-e.2013.6611979

W. Barry and B. J. Ross, "Virtual photography using multi-objective particle swarm optimization," in The 2014 Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2576768.2598210

P. Burelli, "Implementing Game Cinematography: Technical Challenges and Solutions for Automatic Camera Control in Games," in Eurographics Workshop on Intelligent Cinematography and Editing, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41316-7_11

N. Fourati, J. Huang and C. Pelachaud, "Dynamic stimuli visualization for experimental studies of body language," in 10th Workshop on Multimodal Corpora, In conjunction with LREC 2014 (MMC 2014), Reykjavik, Iceland, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2617995.2618004

C. Sanokho, C. Desoche, B. Merabti, T. Y. Li and M. Christie, "Camera Motion Graphs," in Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1073368.1073409

P. C. Lai, H. Y. Wu, C. Sanokho, M. Christie and T. Y. Li, "A Pattern-based Tool for Creating Virtual Cinematography in Interactive Storytelling," in 12th International Symposium on Smart Graphics, Taipei, Taiwan, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11650-1_11

H. N. Dib, N. A. Villani and J. Yu, "Computer Animation for Learning Building Construction Management: A Comparative Study of First Person versus Third Person View," in E-Learning, E-Education, and Online Training Volume 138 of the series Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13293-8_10

P. Burelli, "Adaptive Virtual Camera Control Trough Player Modelling," User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, vol. 25, no. 2, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11257-015-9156-4

B. Merabti, M. Christie and K. Bouatouch, "A Virtual Director Using Hidden Markov Models," Computer Graphics Forum, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cgf.12775

W. Hu and X. Zhang, "A Semiautomatic Control Technique for Machinima Virtual Camera," in International Conference on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE), Hangzhou, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iccsee.2012.470

C.-H. Chen and T.-Y. Li, "Context-aware Camera Planning for Interactive Storytelling," in Ninth International Conference on Computer Graphics, Hsinchu, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/cgiv.2012.15

W.-H. Hsu, Y. Zhang and K.-L. Ma, "A Multi-Criteria Approach to Camera Motion Design for Volume Data Animation," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics , vol. 19, no. 12, 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tvcg.2013.123

M. Preuss, P. Burelli and G. N. Yannakakis, "Diversified Virtual Camera Composition," in Applications of Evolutionary Computation, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012, pp. 265-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29178-4_27

M. Christie, J.-M. Normand and P. Olivier, "Occlusion-free Camera Control for Multiple Targets," in Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, Lausanne, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8659.2008.01181.x

E. T. Lixandru and V. Zordan, "Physical Rig for First-person, Look-at Cameras in Video Games," in Motion in Games, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2668064.2668101

A. N. Erdem and U. Halıcı, "Game Camera Direction Based on Computational Aesthethics Using Machine Learning," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, no. 99, 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mcg.2016.43

R. C. Eberhart and J. Kennedy., "Particle swarm optimization," in IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, 1995.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icnn.1995.488968


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2019 Praise Worthy Prize