Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Low Complexity Image Authentication Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Mixed Scales Faber Schauder Wavelet

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



The technology development has made the modification of digital content easier. The need of authenticating digital content is increasing. Different fragile watermarking methods have been proposed for image authentication. Image authentication is possible by embedding a mark into the digital image using watermarking. In some application low complexity algorithm is required, such as real-time and video processing applications. In this paper, we propose a low complexity image fragile watermarking based on Faber Schauder Discrete Wavelet Transform (FSDWT) and Singular Value Decomposition where the data to be embedded is a logo. The Watermark was generated by applying Xor operation between the logo’s bits and the bits of dominant blocks singular values of the image to authenticate. These dominant blocks are obtained by applying FSDWT to the image to be authenticated. Since the image is characterized by its contours and it’s around textures which contain an important concentration of dominant blocks, any image modification will result in significant change of the dominant blocks singular values, which helps the watermarking scheme to detect the authenticity of the image. Since FSDWT is composed of simple operations, the algorithm has a low complexity. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Copyright © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Image Authentication; Fragile Watermarking; Tamper Detection; Mixed Scales FSDWT; Singular Value Decomposition

Full Text:



C. Ingemar, M. Matthew, B. Jeffrey, F. Jessica, K. Ton, Digital Watermarking and Steganography (ED.2, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA,2007).

S. Taheri, S., Ghaemmaghami., A Hierarchical Approach to SVD-based Fragile Watermarking for Image Authentication, Information, Communications and Signal Processing, Fifth International Conference (Page: 870-876, 2005 ).

M. Wu, B. Liu, Data hiding in binary image for authentication and annotation, IEEE Trans. Multimedia, Vol. 6, pp. 528-538,2004.

Kim, H.Y, R.L. de Queiroz, Alteration locating authentication watermarking for binary images, Lecture Notes Comput (2004, 125-136).

H.Yang, A.C. Kot, Binary image authentication with tampering localization by embedding cryptographic signature and block identifier, IEEE Sign. Proc. Lett., Vol. 13, pp. 741-744,2006.

Puhan, N.B., A.T.S. Ho., F. Sattar., Erasable authentication watermarking in binary document images, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control (Page: 288-291, 2007).

S.Rawat,B.Raman,A chaotic system based fragile watermarking scheme for image tamper detection, International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 65, n. 10, pp. 840-847, 2011.

S.C. Byun., S.K. Lee., A.H. Tew-fik., B.H. Ahn., A SVD-Based Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Authentication, International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, LNCS 2613, (Page: 170-178, 2003).

K. Bhagyashri., Joshi M. Y., Robust Image Watermarking based on Singular Value Decompositionand Discrete Wavelet Transform, Nanded 2010 IEEE.

M.El Hajji, H. Ouaha, K. Afdel, H. Douzi, Multiple Watermark for Authentication and Tamper Detection using Mixed scales DWT, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 28, n. 6, pp.31-34,2011.

H. Douzi, D. Mammass, F. Nouboud, Faber-Schauder wavelet transformation application to edge detection and image characterization, Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision, Kluwer Academic Press, Vol. 14, n. 2, pp. 91-102,2001.

W. Sweldens, The lifting scheme, A construction of second generation wavelets, SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis, vol. 29, n. 2, pp. 511-546, 1998.

C. T. Dang., M. Kumar., H. Radha., Key Frame Extraction from Consumer Videos Using Epitome, Image Processing (ICIP), 19th IEEE International Conference (Page: 93-96, 2012).

S.Szenasi, Distributed Region Growing Algorithm for Medical Image Segmentation, International Journal of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 8, n. 1, pp.173-181,2014.

J. Canny, A computational approach to edge Detection, Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions, pp. 679-698, 1986.

M. El Hajji, H. Douzi, D. Mammas, R. Harba, F. Ros, A New Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Mixed Scales Wavelets, J. Electron. Imaging , Vol. 21, n. 1.2012

N. Otsu, A threshold selection method from grey scale histogram, IEEE Trans. on SMC, Vol. 1, pp. 62-66, 1979.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize