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Embedding Image ROI Watermark Into Median DCT Coefficients

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Algorithms of digital image watermarking are broadly classified in spatial domain watermarking and frequency domain watermarking. Spatial domain watermarking techniques have low bit capacity and low robustness to different types of attacks, such as compression, cropping, noise addition and affine transforms. However, frequency domain watermarking proved robustness to watermark attacks, therefore watermarking scientists paid attention to such techniques in particular to Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) since they can be used in different multimedia standards such as MPEG-4 and JPEG2000. In this paper, a watermarking approach based on DCT is introduced. The image is divided into 8 x 8 blocks and DCT is applied on each block. All median DCT coefficients for all blocks are collected and compared with a selected ROI DCT coefficient; the block coefficient with the least absolute difference will be used for embedding. Results showed high robustness and imperceptibility when the median coefficients are used compared to embedding in other coefficients.
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DCT Watermarking; Copyright; DWT Watermarking; Information Hiding; Steganography; Image Perturbing

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