Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

ISPM: Improved Snow Prediction Model to Nowcast Snow/No-Snow

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Till date, many of the practioners, meteorologists, researchers, academicians, scientists across the globe proposed many methodologies and tools to nowcast snow/no-snow using satellite imagery, radar imagery, physical instruments, various algorithms, models and so on, adding to it some researchers estimated the amount of snow while some researchers detected the density of snow and few discriminated the differences between wet snow and dry snow. The main crux of the present research is to nowcast the presence of snow/no-snow more accurately by making use of historical weather datasets by adopting decision trees. In this paper, we are proposing a new algorithm Improved Snow Prediction Model (ISPM), an improvement to our earlier algorithms Snow Prediction Model (SPM), Improved Supervised Learning in Quest (ISLIQ), Supervised Learning using Gain Ratio as Attribute Selection Measure (SLGAS) and Supervised Learning using Entropy as Attribute Selection Measure (SLEAS). The ISPM algorithm out performs in terms of various performance measures like sensitivity, specificity, precision, dice, error rate and accuracy when compared with other decision tree models. The proposed method provides less computational complexity by evaluating the interval range, which significantly decreases the number of split points. Experimental results show that the ISPM algorithm scales up well to both large and small datasets with large number of attributes and class labels.
Copyright © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Decision Tree; SLIQ; SPM; SLGAS; SLEAS; ISLIQ; ISPM; Snow; No-Snow

Full Text:



Robert A. Houze: Cloud Dynamics. Academic Press (1994).

Nabilah Filzah Mohd Radzuan, Andi Putra, Zalinda Othman, Azuraliza Abu Bakar and Abdul Razak Hamdan: Comparative Study – Three Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Rain Domain in Precipitation Forecast. International Journal of Environmental, Ecological, Geological and Mining Engineering (2013) 898-903.

J. Han: Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. (2001)

Irene Y.H. Gu, Unai Sistiag and Anders Fahlstrom: Online Detection of Snow Coverage and Swing Angles of Electrical Insulators on Power Transmission Lines. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (2009) 3249 – 3252.

Jinmei Pan, Lingmei Jiang and Lixin Zhang: Wet Snow Detection in the South of China by Passive Microwave Remote Sensing. IEEE International Geo Science and Remote Sensing Symposium (2012) 4863-4866.

Yajaira Mejia, Hosni Ghedira and Reza Khanbilvardi: A Neural Network Based Approach for Multi-Spectral Snowfall Detection and Estimation, IEEE International Geo Science and Remote Sensing Symposium (2007) 2276 – 2279.

Melanie Wetzel, Michael Meyers, Randolph Borys, Ray Mcanelly, William Cotton, Andrew Rossi, Paul Frisbie, David Nadler, Douglas Lowenthal, Stephen Cohn, and William Brown: Mesoscale Snowfall Prediction And Verification In Mountainous Terrain. AMS Journal Of Weather And Forecasting (2004) 806-828.;2

Pascal Sirguey, Renaud Mathieu Yves Arnaud, Muhammad M. Khan and Jocelyn Chanussot: Improved Resolution For The Detection Of Snow With Modis Using Wavelet Fusion. IEEE International Geo Science and Remote Sensing Symposium (2007) 3975-3978.

Michael A. Rotondi: Estimating Transition Matrices to Predict Tomorrow’s Snowfall Using Real Data. Journal of Statistics Education (2010) 1-14.

Gail M. Sko Fronick Jackson, Benjamin T. Johnson, and S. Joseph Munchak: Detection Thresholds of Falling Snow From Satellite-Borne Active And Passive Sensors, IEEE Transactions On Geo Science and Remote Sensing (2013) 4177-4189.

Gail M. Skofronick Jackson and Benjamin T. Johnson: Thresholds Of Detection For Falling Snow From Satellite-Borne Active And Passive Sensors, IEEE International Geo Science And Remote Sensing Symposium (2007) 2637-2640.

Andrea Spisni, Fausto Tomei, Sara Pignone, Enrico Muzzi, Alessandro Panzacchi, Gabriele Antolini, Giulia Villani, Michele Di Lorenzo, Rosanna Foraci1, Marco Bittelli and Erin S. Brooks: Snow Cover Analysis in Emilia-Romagna. European Journal of Remote Sensing (2011) 59-73.

Alberto Martinez Vazquez and Joaquim Fortuny Guasch: Snow Avalanche Detection and Classification Algorithm for GB-SAR Imagery, IEEE International Geo Science and Remote Sensing Symposium (2007) 3740-3743.

Jeremie Bossu, Nicolas Hautière and Jean Philippe Tarel: Rain or Snow Detection in Image Sequences through Use of a Histogram of Orientation of Streaks, International Journal of Computer Vision (2011) 348-367.

Noel Dacruz Evora, Ddominique Tapsoba and Danielle De Seve: Combining Artificial Neural Network Models, Geo statistics, and Passive Microwave Data for Snow Water Equivalent Retrieval and Mapping. IEEE Transactions on Geo Science and Remote Sensing (2008) 1925-1939.

Hossein Zeinivand and Florimond De SmISLIQ: Simulation of Snow Covers area by a Physical Based Model. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (2009) 428-433.

Xiaolan Xu, Ding Liang, Leung Tsang, Konstantinos M. Andreadis, Edward G. Josberger, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Donald W. Cline and Simon H. Yueh: Active Remote Sensing of Snow Using NMM3D/DMRT and Comparison With Clpx Ii Airborne Data, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (2010) 689-697.

B. B. Fitzharris and B. P. Mcalevey: Remote Sensing of Seasonal Snow Cover in the Mountains of New Zealand Using Satellite Imagery. Taylor and Francis Geocarto International (1999) 35-44.

Ashok N. Srivastava and Julienne Stroeve: Onboard Detection of Snow, Ice, Clouds and Other Geophysical Processes Using Kernel Methods. Proceedings of the ICML 2003 Workshop on Machine Learning Technologies for Autonomous Space Applications (2003) 1-5.

G. Singh, Y. Yamaguchi, S. E. Park and G. Venkataraman: Identification of Snow Using SAR Polarimetry Techniques. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science (2010) 146-149.

Fan Ke and Tian Baoqiang: Prediction of Wintertime Heavy Snow Activity in North East China. Springer Chinese Science Bulletin (2013) 1420-1426.

Folorunsho Olaiya: Application of Data Mining Techniques in Weather Prediction and Climate Change Studies, International Journal of Information Engineering and Electronic Business (2012) 51-59.

Manjeet Singh, V. D. Mishra, N. K. Hakur and Jyoti Dhar Sharma: Remote Sensing GIS Based Statistical Modelling for the Prediction of Natural Hazards. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, (2012) 1-7.

J.R. Quinlan: Induction of Decision Trees. Journal of Machine Learning (1986) 81-106.

B. Chandra and P. Paul Varghese: Fuzzy Sliq Decision Tree Algorithm: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (2008) 1294-1301.

Anuja Priyama, Abhijeeta, Rahul Guptaa, Anju Ratheeb and Saurabh Srivastavab: Comparative Analysis of Decision Tree Classification Algorithms, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology (2013) 334-337.

Masud Karim and Rashedur M. Rahman: Decision Tree and Naive Bayes Algorithm for Classification and Generation of Actionable Knowledge for Direct Marketing. Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (2013) 196-206.

Pedro Domingos and Michael J. Pazzani: Beyond Independence: Conditions for the Optimality of the Simple Bayesian Classifier. International Conference on Machine Learning (1996) 105-112.

Manish Mehta, Rakesh Agarwal and Jorma Rissanen: SLIQ: A Fast Scalable Classifier for Data Mining. International Conference on Extending Database Technology (1996) 18-32.

Rodrigo Coelho Barros, Marcio Porto Basgalupp, Andre C.P.L.F. De Carvalho and Alex A. Freitas: A Survey of Evolutionary Algorithms for Decision Tree Induction, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (2012) 291-312.

J.R. Quinlan: C4.5: Programs for Machine Learning, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, (1993).

S. Safavian and D. Landgrebe: A Survey of Decision Tree Classifier Methodology, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man And Cybernetics (1991) 660 -674.

Arun k pujari: Data Mining Techniques. Universities Press (2004).

Powers and M. W. David: Evolution: From Precision, Recall and F-Measure to Roc, Informedness, Markedness and Correlation. Journal of Machine Learning Technologies (2011) 37-63.

Kishor Kumar Reddy C, Vijaya Babu B, Rupa C H: SLEAS: Supervised Learning using Entropy as Attribute Selection Measure. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (2014) 2053-2060.

Kishor Kumar Reddy C, Rupa C H and Vijaya Babu B: A Pragmatic Methodology to Predict the Presence of Snow/No-Snow using Supervised Learning Methodologies. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (2014) 11381-11394.

Chandra, B., Mazumdar, S., Vincent, A. and Parimi, N: Elegant Decision Tree Algorithm for Classification in Data Mining. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering (2002) 160−169.

Kishor Kumar Reddy C, Rupa C H and Vijaya Babu: SPM: A Fast and Scalable Model for Predicting Snow/No-Snow. World Applied Sciences Journal (2014) 1561-1570.

Pramote Luenam, Supawadee Ingsriswang, Lily Ingsrisawang, Prasert Aungsuratana, and Warawut Khantiyanan: A Neuro-Fuzzy Approach for Daily Rainfall Prediction over the Central Region of Thailand. International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (2010).

Lily Ingsrisawang, Supawadee Ingsriswang, Pramote Luenam, Premjai Trisaranuwatana, Song Klinpratoom, Prasert Aungsuratana, and Warawut Khantiyanan: Applications of Statistical Methods for Rainfall Prediction over the Eastern Thailand. International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (2010).

Thair Nu Phyu: Survey of Classification Techniques in Data Mining. International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (2009).

Kumar Reddy, C., Rupa, C., Vijaya Babu, B., SLGAS: Supervised Learning Using Gain Ratio as Attribute Selection Measure to Nowcast Snow/No-Snow, (2015) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 10 (2), pp. 120-129.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize