Watermarking Relational Databases Using Genetic Algorithm with Ring Crossover Technique

I. Jasmine Selvakumari Jeya(1*), J. Suganthi(2)

(1) Professor in Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
(2) Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology Coimbatore, India
(*) Corresponding author

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


Proving ownership rights on outsourced relational databases is a crucial issue in today internet-based application environments and in many content distribution applications. This type of system is non-intrusive, resilient, blind, reversible and suitable for databases of any size with reasonable performance on embedding and extraction. Ownership rights on outsourced relational database are extremely vital subject in today’s internet surroundings and in much content sharing request, because the rapid growth of the internet and related technologies offered an unprecedented ability to access and redistribute digital content. The genetic algorithm is an optimization and search technique based on the principles of genetics and natural selection. Proposed watermarking technique is flexible one to synchronize the error.  The main aim of the paper to conquer the most important weakness in previously proposed watermarking techniques. Here threshold-based techniques are used in the watermarking decoding. Six type of cross over are implemented in the genetic algorithm. In order to find the effectiveness and feasibility for the proposed crossover operator, a comparison between the results of different crossover operators used in GA is made through a three type of attacks i.e., deletion attack, alteration attack, insertion attack with various levels. In this paper compare our proposed method with five different methods. From the experimental result it is clearly observed that the proposed method of ring crossover proves better result than existing method.  Proposed method gives 100% accuracy even when up to 100% of the data set size tuples were altered, deleted and inserted
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Crossover Operator; Genetic Algorithm; Optimization Techniques; Ring Crossover; Watermarking Techniques

Full Text:



L. Vaas. Putting a Stop to Database Piracy. eWEEK, Enterprise Newsand Revs., Sept 2003.

R. Wolfgang, C. Podilchuk, and E. Delp. Perceptual Watermarks for Digital Images and Video. Proceedings of the IEEE, 87:1108–1126, July 1999.

M. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, and A. Tewfik. Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies. Proceedings of the IEEE,86:1064–1087, June 1998.

F. Hartung and M.Kutter. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques. Proceedings of the IEEE, 87(7):1079–1107, July 1999.

G. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, and R. Lagendijk. Watermarking Digital Image and Video Data: A State-of-the-Art Overview. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 17(5):20–46, September 2000.

M. Atallah and S. Lonardi. Authentication of LZ-77 Compressed Data. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Florida, USA, 2003.

C. Collberg and C. Thomborson. Software Watermarking: Models and Dynamic Embeddings. In Proceedings of the 26th ACM SIGPLANSIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, San Antonio, TX, January 1999. ACM.

M. Atallah, V. Raskin, C. Hempelman, M. Karahan, R. Sion, K. Triezenberg, and U. Topkara. Natural Language Watermarking and Tamper Proofing. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Information Hiding Workshop, Florida, USA, 2002.

S., N. Sivanandan, S. N. Deepa, Introduction to Genetic Algorithm, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2008.

J. H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge, USA: The MIT Press, 1992.

R. Agrawal and J. Kiernan. Watermarking Relational Databases. In Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, Hong Kong, China, 2002.

F. Petitcolas, R. Anderson, and M. Kuhn. Attacks on Copyright Marking Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1525:218–238, April 1998.

I. Cox, J. Bloom, and M. Miller. Digital Watermarking. Morgan Kaufmann, 2001.

Y. Li, V. Swarup, and S. Jajodia. Fingerprinting Relational Databases: Schemes and Specialties. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 02(1):34–45, Jan-Mar 2005.

Ashraf Odeh, Ali Al-Haj, “Watermarking Relational Database Systems,” IEEE, pp. 270-274, 2008.

Sanjeev Khanna, Francis Zane, “Watermarking Maps: Hiding Information in Structured Data,” Int’l Conf. SODA 2000, San Francisco, California, USA, pp. 596-605. 2000.

Ashraf Odeh, Ali Al-Haj, “Robust and Blind Watermarking of Relational Database System,” Journal of Computer Science 4 (12), pp. 1024-1029, 2008.

Kim, Y.-S., Kwon, O.-H., and Park, R.-H., “Wavelet Based Watermarking Method for Digital Images Using The Human Visual System,” IEE Electronics Letters, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 466-468, 1999.

Alirr, O., Jumari, K., Digital Image Watermarking and Encryption Using DWT and RSA, (2013) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 8 (4), pp. 958-963.

B. Schneier. Applied Cryptography. John Wiley, 1996.

R. Sion, M. Atallah, and S. Prabhakar. Rights Protection for Relational Data. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 16(6), June 2004.

J. Holland. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. The MIT Press, 1992.

D. Coley. An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms for Scientists and Engineers. World Scientific, 1999.

D. Goldberg. Genetic Algorithm in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. Addison-Wesley, 1989.

E. Chong and S. ˙Z ak. An Introduction to Optimization. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2001.

C. R. Reeves, J. E. Rome, Genetic Algorithms Principles and Perspectives, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht, 2003.

T. Kellegoz, B. Toklu, J. Wilson, “Comparing Efficiencies of Genetic Crossover Operators for One Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem,”Applied Mathematics and Computation, 199, 590–598, 2008.

L. Booker, “Improving search in genetic algorithms,” In Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing, L. Davis (Ed.). Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1987.

M. Kaya, “The Effects of Two New Crossover Operators on Genetic Algorithm Performance,” Applied Soft Computing, 11, 881–890, 2011.


R. Morelos-Zaragoza. The Art of Error Correcting Coding. John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

Mohamed Shehab and Arif Ghafoor, “Watermarking Relational Databases using Optimization-Based Techniques,” IEEE Transaction on Knowledge and data Engineering, Vol. 20, No.1, pp. 116-129, Jan. 2008.

Vidhi Khanduja and O. P. Verma, “Identification and Proof of Ownership by Watermarking Relational Databases”, International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 2, March 2012.

Theodoros Tzouramanis. “A Robust Watermarking Scheme for Relational Databases”, 6th International Conference on Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, 11-14 December 2011, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

ZHANG Yong, NIU Xia-mu, WU Di, ZHAO Liang, LI Jun-cao, XU Wei-jun, “A Method of Verifying Relational Databases Ownership with Image Watermark”, Information Security Technique Research Center, Senzhen Graduate School.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2019 Praise Worthy Prize