Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Managing Software Project Risks (Implementation Phase) with Proposed Stepwise Regression Analysis Techniques

Abdelrafe Elzamly(1*), Burairah Hussin(2)

(1) Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Al-Aqsa University Gaza, Palestine, State of
(2) Fakulti Teknologi Maklumat & Komunikasi, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding author



Regardless how much effort we put for the success of software projects, many software projects have very high failure rate and risks are everywhere in life. Risk is not always avoidable, but it is controllable. The aim of this paper is to present new techniques by which we can study the impact of different risk management techniques and different risk factors on software development projects. The new technique uses the stepwise regression to managing the risks in a software project and reducing risk with software process improvement.  Top ten software risk factors (Implementation phase) and thirty control factors were presented to respondents. The results show that all risks in software projects were important in software project manager perspective, whereas all controls are used most of time, and often. These tests were performed using regression analysis to compare the controls to each of the risk factors to determine if they are effective in mitigating the occurrence of each risk factor and selecting best model. We referred the risk management techniques were mitigated on ten top software risk factors in Table XLVI. The study has been conducted on a group of software project managers. Successful project risk management will greatly improve the probability of project success.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Software Project Management; Risk Management; Software Risk Factors; Implementation Phase; Risk Management Techniques; Stepwise Regression Analysis Techniques

Full Text:



S. Masticola, “A Simple Estimate of the Cost of Software Project Failures and the Breakeven Effectiveness of Project Risk Management,” 2007 First International Workshop on the Economics of Software and Computation, May 2007.

K. Schwalbe, Information Technology Project Management, Sixth. course technology,cengage learning, 2010, p. 490.

D. McNair, “Controlling risk,” Magazine Ubiquity, vol. 2001, no. January, ACM New York, NY, USA, 01-Jan-2001.

J. Miler, “P H D T HESIS A Method of Software Project Risk Identification and Analysis Jakub Miler,” Gdańsk University Of Technology, 2005.

J. Miler and J. Górski, “Supporting Team Risk Management in Software Procurement and Development Projects,” in 4th National Conference on Software Engineering, 2002.

C. R. Pandian, Applied software risk management : a guide for software project managers. Auerbach Publications is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business, 2007, p. 246.

M. Keil, P. Cule, K. Lyytinen, and R. Schmidt, “Aframework for Identifying Software Project Risks,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 41, no. 11, 1998.

J. Hoffer, J. George, and J. Valacich, Modern Systems Analysis and Design, 6th ed. Prentice Hall, 2011, p. 575.

J. Taylor, Managing Information Technology Projects: Applying Project Management Strategies to Software, Hardware, and Integration Initiatives. AMACOM © 2004, 2004, p. 274.

J. Sodhi and P. Sodhi, IT Project Management Handbook. Management Concepts, 2001, p. 264.

B. Boehm, “Value-based software engineering,” ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, vol. 28, no. 2, p. 3, Mar. 2003.

H. Taylor, “The move to outsourced IT projects: key risks from the provider perspective,” in SIGMIS CPR ’05 Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGMIS CPR conference on Computer personnel research, 2005, pp. 149–154.

T. Addison and S. Vallabh, “Controlling Software Project Risks – an Empirical Study of Methods used by Experienced Project Managers.,” in Proceedings of SAICSIT, 2002, pp. 128 – 140.

L. Wallace and M. Keil, “Software project risks and their effect on outcomes,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 68–73, Apr. 2004.

D. Liu, Q. Wang, and J. Xiao, “The role of software process simulation modeling in software risk management: A systematic review,” 2009 3rd International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, pp. 302–311, Oct. 2009.

E. Odzaly, D. Greer, and P. Sage, “Software risk management barriers: An empirical study,” in 3rd International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, 2009, pp. 418–421.

P. Bannerman, “Managing Structure-Related Software Project Risk: A New Role for Project Governance,” 2010 21st Australian Software Engineering Conference, pp. 129–138, 2010.

N. Zazworka and C. Ackermann, “CodeVizard: A Tool to Aid the Analysis of Software Evolution,” Proceedings of the 2010 ACMIEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 4503–4503, 2010.

S. Islam, “Software Development Risk Management Model- a goal-driven approach Shareeful Islam,” Technische Universitat Munchen, 2009.

A. Elzamly and B. Hussin, “Estimating Quality-Affecting Risks in Software Projects,” International Management Review , American Scholars Press, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 66–83, 2011.

J. Dhlamini, I. Nhamu, and A. Kachepa, “Intelligent Risk Management Tools for Software Development,” Risk Management, pp. 33–40, 2009.

A. De Melo and A. Sanchez, “Software maintenance project delays prediction using Bayesian Networks,” Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 908–919, Feb. 2008.

K. Khanfar, A. Elzamly, W. Al-Ahmad, E. El-Qawasmeh, K. Alsamara, and S. Abuleil, “Managing Software Project Risks with the Chi-Square Technique,” Management Review, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 18–29, 2008.

A. Elzamly and B. Hussin, Managing Software Project Risks with Proposed Regression Model Techniques and Effect Size Technique, (2011) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 6 (2), pp. 250–263.

R. Dash and R. Dash, “Risk Assessment Techniques for Software Development,” European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 629–636, 2010.

Oracle, “A Standardized Approach to Risk Improves Project Outcomes and Profitability,” 2010.

B. Boehm, “Software Risk Management : Principles and Practices,” Management, no. January, 1991.

T. S. G. 1995 CHAOS, “THE STANDISH GROUP REPORT The Standish Group 1995. Reprinted here for sole academic purposes with written permission from The Standish Group. CHAOS,” 29/2/2012, 1995. .

T. Addison, “E-commerce project development risks : evidence from a Delphi survey 1,” International Journal of Information Management, vol. 23, no. June 2001, pp. 25–40, 2003.

D. Aloini, R. Dulmin, and V. Mininno, “Risk management in ERP project introduction: Review of the literature,” Information & Management, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 547–567, Sep. 2007.

W.-M. Han and S.-J. Huang, “An empirical analysis of risk components and performance on software projects,” Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 42–50, Jan. 2007.

S.-J. Huang and W.-M. Han, “Exploring the relationship between software project duration and risk exposure: A cluster analysis,” Information & Management, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 175–182, Apr. 2008.

B. Aritua, N. J. Smith, and D. Bower, “What risks are common to or amplified in programmes: Evidence from UK public sector infrastructure schemes,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 303–312, Jun. 2010.

R. O. Y. Schmidt, K. Lyytinen, M. Keil, and P. Cule, “Identifying Software Project Risks: An International Delphi Study,” Journal tjf Managemenl Information Systems /Spring, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 5–36, 2001.

R. Nakatsu and C. Iacovou, “A comparative study of important risk factors involved in offshore and domestic outsourcing of software development projects: A two-panel Delphi study,” Information & Management, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 57–68, Jan. 2009.

J.-C. Chen and S.-J. Huang, “An empirical analysis of the impact of software development problem factors on software maintainability,” Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 981–992, Jun. 2009.

M. Keil, A. Tiwana, and A. Bush, “Reconciling user and project manager perceptions of IT project risk: a Delphi study 1,” Information Systems Journal, no. April 1999, pp. 103–119, 2002.

L. Wallace, M. Keil, and A. Rai, “How Software Project Risk Affects Project Performance: An Investigation of the Dimensions of Risk and an Exploratory Model,” Decision Sciences, vol. 35, no. 2, 2004.

M. Sumner, “Risk factors in enterprise-wide/ERP projects,” Journal of Information Technology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 317–327, Dec. 2000.

B. Boehm and R. Ross, “Theory-W Software Project Management: Principles and Examples,” vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 902–916, 1989.

Kweku Ewusi-Mensah, Software Development Failures: Anatomy of Abandoned Projects. The MIT Press, 2003, p. 276.

G. Paré, C. Sicotte, M. Jaana, and D. Girouard, “Prioritizing Clinical Information System Project Risk Factors: A Delphi Study,” in Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences -, 2008, pp. 1–10.

D. Houston, G. Mackulak, and J. Collofello, “Stochastic simulation of risk factor potential effects for software development risk management,” Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 247–257, Dec. 2001.

B. Lawrence, K. Wiegers, and C. Ebert, “The Top Risks of Requirements Engineering,” 2001.

D. Shafer and C. Officer, “Software Risk: Why must we keep learning from experience? Where does Risk Occur in DP Software Development?,” in DYNAMIC POSITIONING CONFERENCE, 2004, pp. 1–19.

H. Hoodat and H. Rashidi, “Classification and Analysis of Risks in Software Engineering,” Engineering and Technology, vol. 56, pp. 446–452, 2009.

C. Jones, G. Glen, G. Anna, and D. Miller, “Strategies for improving systems development project success,” Issues in Information Systems (IIS), vol. XI, no. 1, pp. 164–173, 2010.

C. Jones, Applied Software Measurement Global Analysis of Productivity and Quality, Third Edit., no. Third Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies., 2008, p. 662.

A. Taimour, “Why IT Projects Fail,” 2005.

L. Rui-ge and W. Bing-rong, “The Correlation Influence Factors Analysis in the Initial dosage of Insulin Therapy of Diabetes,” pp. 774–777, 2011.

V. Marza and M. A. Seyyedi, “Fuzzy Multiple Regression Model for Estimating Software Development Time,” vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 31–34, 2009.

C. Martín, J. Pasquier, C. Y. M., and A. G. T., “Software Development Effort Estimation Using Fuzzy Logic: A Case Study,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Mexican International Conference on Computer Science (ENC’05), 2005.

X. Jin and X. Xu, “Rmote sensing of leaf water content for winter wheat using grey relational analysis (GRA), stepwise regression method (SRM) and partial least squares (PLS),” in 2012 First International Conference on Agro- Geoinformatics (Agro-Geoinformatics), 2012, pp. 1–5.

Y. Lan and S. Guo, “Multiple Stepwise Regression Analysis on Knowledge Evaluation,” in 2008 International Conference on Management of e-Commerce and e-Government, 2008, pp. 297–302.

N. Zhou, S. Member, J. W. Pierre, and D. Trudnowski, “A Stepwise Regression Method for Estimating Dominant Electromechanical Modes,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 1051–1059, 2012.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize