Analyzing and Identifying Potential Areas of Improvement in Object Oriented Metrics

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


Object oriented programming has taken a major role in the development of large, complex systems. Software quality of these systems is of prime importance to many stakeholders. One approach is to use object oriented metrics to predict and control the quality of these systems. Many metrics have been proposed in the literature to monitor specific object oriented traits. However due to the sheer numbers of metrics available it becomes a difficult task to pick and choose relevant metrics for applying to specific needs. This motivated us to analyze the object oriented metrics that have been proposed and group them based on various factors. Our analysis would help developers and managers to pick the right choice of metrics for their need. It will also help researchers of object oriented metrics to identify potential areas which they could focus upon
Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Object Oriented Metrics; Software Quality; Cohesion; Coupling; Inheritance; Polymorphism; Data Encapsulation; Data Abstraction

Full Text:



Kitchenham, B. and Pfleeger, S.L., “Software Quality: the Elusive Target”, IEEE Software, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 12-21, January 1996.

Baldassari, B., Robach, C. and du Bosquet, L., “Early metrics for Object Oriented Designs”, Proc. 1st Int’l. Workshop on Testability Assessment (IWoTA), 2004, pp. 62-69.

Deitel and Deitel, “C++ how to program”,Prentice Hall 2001.

David Pason, “object-Oriented Programming”, DP Publication 1994. [Coh1]S.R. Chidamber and C.F. Kemerer, Towards a Metrics Suite for Object- Oriented Design, Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages and Applications (OOPSLA), Special Issue of SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 26, No. 10, 1991, pp. 197-211.

K.R Venugopal Rajkumar, T,Ravishankar, “Mastering C++” Tata McGrow-Hill Publisher 2008

G.J. Myers, Software Reliability-Principles and Practices, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1976).

M. Page-Jones, The Practical Guide to Structured Systems, 2nd ed., Yourdon Press (1988).

E. Yourdon and L. Constantine, Structured Design, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall (1979).

L.C. Briand, J.W. Daly and J.W¨ust, A Unified Framework for Cohesion Measurement in Object-Oriented Systems, Empirical Software Eng. : An Int’l J. 3(1) (1998) 65–117.

D.Troy and S.Zweben, Measuring the quality of structured designs, Journal of Systems and Software,1981, pp. 113-120

J.Bieman and B.Kang, Measuring design-level cohesion IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol.24, No.2, 1998, PP. 111-124

E.Youdon and L.Constantine, Structured Design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Eliffs 1979

S.R. Chidamber and C.F. Kemerer, Towards a Metrics Suite for Object- Oriented Design, Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages and Applications (OOPSLA), Special Issue of SIGPLAN Notices, Vol. 26, No. 10, 1991, pp. 197-211.

S.R. Chidamber and C.F. Kemerer, A Metrics suite for object Oriented Design, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 6, 1994, pp. 476-493.

W. Li and S.M. Henry, Maintenance metrics for the object oriented paradigm. In Proceedings of 1st International Software Metrics Symposium, Baltimore, MD, 1993, pp. 52-60.

M. Hitz and B. Montazeri, Measuring coupling and cohesion in object oriented systems, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Applied Corporate Computing, 1995, pp. 25-27.

B. Henderson-Sellers, Software Metrics, Prentice Hall, Hemel Hempstaed, U.K., 1996.

J. M. Bieman and B. Kang, Cohesion and reuse in an object-oriented system, Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software reusability, Seattle, Washington, United States, pp. 259-262, 1995.

L. Badri and M. Badri, A Proposal of a new class cohesion criterion: an empirical study, Journal of Object Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2004..

L. C. Briand, J. Daly, and J. Wuest, A unified framework for cohesion measurement in object-oriented systems, Empirical Software Engineering - An International Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1998, pp. 65- 117.

L. Fernández, and R. Peña, A sensitive metric of class cohesion, International Journal of Information Theories and Applications, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2006, pp. 82-91.

C. Bonja and E. Kidanmariam, Metrics for class cohesion and similarity between methods, Proceedings of the 44th Annual ACM Southeast Regional Conference, Melbourne, Florida, 2006, pp. 91-95

J. Bansiya, L. Etzkorn, C. Davis, and W. Li, A class cohesion metric for object-oriented designs, Journal of Object-Oriented Program, Vol. 11, No. 8, pp. 47-52. 1999.

S. Counsell , S. Swift , and J. Crampton, The interpretation and utility of three cohesion metrics for object-oriented design, ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (TOSEM), Vol. 15, No. 2, 2006, pp.123-149.

H. S. Chae, Y. R. Kwon, and D. Bae, A cohesion measure for object oriented classes, Software—Practice & Experience, 30(12), 2000, pp.1405-1431.

Y. Zhou, B. Xu, J. Zhao, and H. Yang, ICBMC: an improved cohesion measure for classes, Proc. of International Conference on Software Maintenance, 2002, pp. 44-53.

jh´azi B, Ferenc R, Poshyvanyk D, Gyim´othy T. New conceptual coupling and cohesion metrics for object-oriented systems. Proceedings of 10th IEEE International Working Conference on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation, 2010; 33–42.

A. Marcus, D. Poshyvanyk, and R. Ferenc, “Using the conceptual cohesion of classes for fault prediction in object-oriented systems,” Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 287–300, March-April 2008.

J. Al Dallal and L. Briand, A Precise method-method interaction-based cohesion metric for object-oriented classes, Simula Research Laboratory, Simula Technical Report(2009-4), 2009, submitted for publication in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (TOSEM).

J. Wang, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, Y. Chen, H. Lu, and B. Xu, DMC: a more precise cohesion measure for classes. Information and Software Technology, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2005, pp. 167-180.

Lee, Y. S., Liang, B. S., Wu, S. F., and Wang, F. J., "Measuring the Coupling and Cohesion of an Object-Oriented Program Based on Information Flow", in Proceedings of International Conference on Software Quality, Maribor, Slovenia, 1995.

Kuljit Kaur, Hardeep Singh, Exploring Design Level Class Cohesion Metrics. J. Software Engineering & Applications, 2010, 3: 384-390.

Al Dallal, Jehad. "Fault prediction and the discriminative powers of connectivity-based object-oriented class cohesion metrics." Information and Software Technology 54.4 (2012): 396-416.

Al Dallal, Jehad, and Lionel C. Briand. "A Precise method-method interaction-based cohesion metric for object-oriented classes." ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (TOSEM) 21.2 (2012): 8.

Gui, G., and P. D. Scott. "Coupling and cohesion measures for evaluation of component reusability." Proceedings of the 2006 international workshop on Mining software repositories. ACM, 2006.

L.C.Briand , J.Daly, and J.Wust, A unified framework for cohesion measurement in object-oriented systems, Empirical Software Engineering, An international Journal, Vol.3, No.1, 1998, PP.65-117

R.W. Selby and V.R. Basili, “Analyzing Error-Prone Systems Structure,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 141-152, 1991.

P.A. Troy and S.H. Zweben, “Measuring the Quality of Structured Designs,” J. Systems and Software, vol. 2, pp. 113-120, 1981.

P. Coad and E. Yourdon, Object-Oriented Analysis, second edition. Prentice Hall, 1991.

P. Coad and E. Yourdon, Object-Oriented Design, first edition. Prentice Hall, 1991.

N.I. Churcher and M.J. Shepperd, “Towards a Conceptual Framework for Object Oriented Software Metrics,” Software Eng. Notes, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 69-76, 1995.

W. Li and S. Henry, “Object-Oriented Metrics that Predict Maintainability,” J. Systems and Software, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 111-122, 1993.

Briand, L. C., Devanbu, P., and Melo, W. L., "An investigation into coupling measures for C++", in Proc. of International Conference on Software engineering (ICSE'97), Boston, MA, May 17-23 1997, pp. 412 - 421.

Martin, Robert. "OO design quality metrics." An analysis of dependencies (1994).

F. Abreu, M. Goulão, and R. Esteves, “Toward the Design Quality Evaluation of Object-Oriented Software Systems,” Proc. Fifth Int’l Conf. Software Quality, Austin, Texas, Oct. 1995.

Poshyvanyk, Denys, and Andrian Marcus. "The conceptual coupling metrics for object-oriented systems." Software Maintenance, 2006. ICSM'06. 22nd IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2006.

N. Boyd, “Building object–oriented frameworks”, The Smalltalk report, Volume 3(1), 1993, pp 1-16.

R. Harrison, “An Evaluation of the MOOD Set of Object-Oriented Software Metrics”, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-24, Volume 6, 1998.

Lionel C. Briand, Jürgen Wüst, Hakim Lounis, “Using Coupling Measurement for Impact Analysis in Object-Oriented Systems” ISERN-99-03

Li, Wei. "Another metric suite for object-oriented programming." Journal of Systems and Software 44.2 (1998): 155-162.

J. Bansiya and C. G. Davis, “A hierarchical model for object-oriented design quality assessment,” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 28, pp. 4–17, 2002.

Chen, J. Y., and J. F. Lu. "A new metric for object-oriented design." Information and Software Technology 35.4 (1993): 232-240.

Coad, Peter, and Edward Yourdon. Object-oriented design. Vol. 92. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Yourdon Press, 1991.

Hsia, Pei, et al. "A study on the effect of architecture on maintainability of object-oriented systems." Software Maintenance, 1995. Proceedings., International Conference on. IEEE, 1995.

Cartwright, Michelle. "An empirical view of inheritance." Information and Software Technology 40.14 (1998): 795-799.

Cartwright, Michelle, and Martin Shepperd. "An empirical investigation of an object-oriented software system." Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 26.8 (2000): 786-796.

Tegarden, David P., Steven D. Sheetz, and David E. Monarchi. "A software complexity model of object-oriented systems." Decision Support Systems 13.3 (1995): 241-262.

Lorenz, M., Kidd, J., 1994. Object-Oriented Software Metrics. Prentice Hall Object-Oriented Series, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Henderson-Sellers B 1996 Object-oriented metrics, measure of complexity. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PTR, Prentice-Hall)

J. Bansiya & C. Davis, “Using QMOOD++ for object-oriented metrics”, Dr. Dobb’s Journal, December 1997.

Kim, Kapsu, Yeongil Shin, and Chisu Wu. "Complexity measures for object-oriented program based on the entropy." Software Engineering Conference, 1995. Proceedings., 1995 Asia Pacific. IEEE, 1995.

Misra, Sanjay, and I. Akman. "Weighted Class Complexity: A Measure of Complexity for Object Oriented System." Journal of Information Science and Engineering 24 (2008): 1689-1708.

Marinescu, Radu. "Detecting design flaws via metrics in object-oriented systems." Technology of Object-Oriented Languages and Systems, 2001. TOOLS 39. 39th International Conference and Exhibition on. IEEE, 2001.

Briand, Lionel C., et al. "Exploring the relationships between design measures and software quality in object-oriented systems." Journal of Systems and Software 51.3 (2000): 245-273.

Yacoub, Sherif M., Hany H. Ammar, and Tom Robinson. "Dynamic metrics for object oriented designs." Software Metrics Symposium, 1999. Proceedings. Sixth International. IEEE, 1999.

Sandhu, Parvinder Singh, and Gurdev Singh. "Dynamic Metrics for Polymorphism in Object Oriented Systems." World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 39 (2008).

Banker, Rajiv, and Robert Kauffman. "Reuse and productivity in integrated computer-aided software engineering: an empirical study." Information Systems Working Papers Series, Vol (1992).

Frakes, W. and Carol, T. (1994). "Reuse level metrics." Third International Conference on Software Reuse (ICSR '3), Rio de Janerio, Brazil: 139-148. Gaffney, J. E., Jr.

Choi, Kelvin HT, and Ewan Tempero. "Dynamic measurement of polymorphism." Proceedings of the thirtieth Australasian conference on Computer science-Volume 62. Australian Computer Society, Inc., 2007.

Erik Arisholm, “Dynamic Coupling Measures for Object-Oriented Software”, In proceedings of 8th IEEE Symposium on Software Metrics (METRICS'02), 2002, pp. 33-42.

W. Thompson, “Dynamic Relativity Metric for Objects: A State-Space Approach”, In Proceedings of 18th Annual Computer Science Conference, 2002, Rensselaer at Hartford

Youssef Hassoun, Roger Johnson and Steve Counsell, “A Dynamic Runtime Coupling Metric for Meta Level Architectures”, In Proceedings of Eighth Euromicro Working Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering (CSMR ’04), 2004, pp. 339-351

A. Beszedes, T. Gergely, S. Farago, T. Gyimothy, and F. Fischer, “The Dynamic Function Coupling Metric and Its Use in Software Evolution”, In Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering, 2007, pp. 103-112. CSMR. IEEE Computer Society, Washington DC.

K. Morris, “Metrics for Object-oriented Software Development Environments”, Master Thesis, MIT 1989.

S. Haidar, T.V Gopal, S. J. Aboud, An Integrated Metrics Based Approach for Usability Engineering, (2006) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 1 (2), pp 114-123.

Bakar, A.D., Sultan, A.B.M., Zulzalil, H., Din, J., Review on 'maintainability' metrics in Open Source Software, (2012) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 7 (3), pp. 903-907.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize