A Wavelet Based Scheme for Video Watermarking

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


In rapid growth of network distributions of images and video, there is an urgent need for copyright protection against pirating. Different digital image and video watermarking schemes have been proposed to address this issue of ownership identification. This paper proposes a novel scheme for video watermarking scheme using discrete wavelet transform to protect the copyright of digital images. The efficiency of the proposed video watermarking technique is attained by two major steps: 1) Watermark embedding process and 2) Watermark extraction process. Before embedding the watermark into the digital video, the input video sequence is segmented into shots using well known shot segmentation technique. The segmented video shots are partitioned into number of frames for the embedding process. The proposed method renders the utilization of the grayscale image as a watermark to embed into the digital video sequence. The grayscale image is sliced into bit planes for analyzing the each bit of the image. Subsequently, the sliced bit plane images are permuted and each permuted watermark images are embedded into each frame of the segmented shots with the aid of the watermark embedding process. Then the recovery of the watermark is achieved with the help of the watermark extraction process. The experimentation results shows that the proposed video watermarking scheme provide better results with higher accuracy. The proposed scheme is robust against the various attacks such as frame dropping, frame averaging attack.
Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Digital Video Watermarking; Discrete Wavelet Transform; Embedding; Extraction; Copyright Protection

Full Text:



Langelaar, G., I. Setyawan, and R. Lagendijk, “Watermarking Digital Image and Video Data: A State-of-Art Overview”, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol.17, pp. 20-46, 2000.

V. Potdar, S. Han, and E. Chang, "A Survey of Digital Image Watermarking Techniques",In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, pp. 709-716, 2005.

M. Ramkumar and A. Akansu, “A Robust Protocol for Proving Ownership of Multimedia Content”, IEEE Transactions Multimedia, Vol. 6, pp. 496-478, 2004.

Lama Rajab, Tahani Al-Khatib and Ali Al-Haj, "Video Watermarking Algorithms Using the SVD Transform ", European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 30, No. 3 , pp. 389-401, 2009.

Jun Tian, "Wavelet-based reversible watermarking for authentication", In proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4675, pp. 679-690, 2002.

Santi P. Maity and Malay K. Kundu, "An Image Watermarking Scheme using HVS Characteristics and Spread Transform”, In proceedings of 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'04), Vol. 4, pp.869-872, 2004.

Soroosh Rezazadeh and Mehran Yazdi, "A Non-oblivious Image Watermarking System Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Texture Segmentation", In Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering And Technology, Vol. 13, May 2006.

V. Padmanabha Reddy and S. Varadarajan, "An Effective Wavelet-Based Watermarking Scheme Using Human Visual System for Protecting Copyrights of Digital Images", International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, No.1, pp.32-40, 2010.

Cox I. J., Miller, M. L. and Bloom J. A., “Digital Watermarking”, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, USA, 2002.

Doerr G. and J. Dugelay, “A Guided Tour to Video Watermarking”, Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol.18, pp. 263-282, 2003.

Saraju P. Mohanty, Elias Kougianos and N. Ranganathan, "VLSI architecture and chip for combined invisible robust and fragile watermarking", Computers & Digital Techniques (IET), Vol.1, No. 5, pp. 600-611, September 2007.

Zhe-Ming Lu, Wei-Min Zheng, Jeng-Shyang Pan and Zhen Sun, “Multipurpose Image Watermarking Method Based on Mean-removed Vector Quantization" Journal of Information Assurance and Security, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 33-42, March 2006.

Yong C. Kim and Byeong C. Choi, "Two-Step Detection Algorithm in a HVS-Based Blind Watermarking of Still Images", In proceedings of Lecturer Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Vol. 2613, pp. 235-248, 2003.

Xiang-Yang Wang and Hong Zhao, "A Novel Synchronization Invariant Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on DWT and DCT", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 54, No. 12, pp. 4835-4840, 2006.

Hartung H. and B. Girod, “Watermarking of Compressed and Un-Compressed Video”, Signal Processing, Vol. 66, pp. 283-30, 1988.

Fuhao Zou, Zhengding Lu and Hefei Ling, Yanwei Yu,” Real-time video watermarking based on extended m-sequences”, In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, pp.1561-1564, 2006.

Karen Su, Deepa Kundur, Dimitrios Hatzinakos, "Statistical Invisibility for Collusion-Resistant Digital Video Watermarking", IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 7, No: 1, pp: 43 - 51, 2005.

Prakash Devale, R. S. Prasad, Amol Dhumane, and Pritesh Patil , " Novel Security Strategy for Real Time Digital Videos”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 46, pp.81-87, 2008.

Neeta Deshpande, Archana Rajurkar, R Manthalkar, "Review of Robust Video Watermarking Algorithms", IJCSIS, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp: 237-246, 2010.

Ji-Young Moon and Yo-Sung Ho, "A Video Watermarking Algorithm Based on the Human Visual System Properties", Computer and Information Sciences, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Vol. 2869, pp: 699-706, 2003.

Bhattacharya, S. Chattopadhyay, T. Arpan Pal, "A Survey on Different Video Watermarking Techniques and Comparative Analysis with Reference to H.264/AVC", In Proceedings of the IEEE Tenth International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, pp.1-6, 2006.

D. Mukherjee, S. Maitra, and S. Acton, "Spatial Domain Digital Watermarking of Multimedia Objects for Buyer Authentication", IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol.6, pp. 1-15, 2004.

M. Herandez, M. Miyatake, and H. Meana, "Analysis of a DFT-based watermarking Algorithm", Proceedings of the IEEE 2nd International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Eng., pp. 44-47, 2005.

Reddy A. and B. Chatterji, “A New Wavelet Based Logo-watermarking Scheme”, Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 26, pp. 1019-1027, 2005.

Joo Lee and Sung-Hwan Jung, "A survey of watermarking techniques applied to Multimedia”, In Proceedings of 2001 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE2001), Vol. 1, pp: 272 -277, 2001.

Reyes R., Cruz C., Nakano-Miyatake M. and Perez-Meana H.,"Digital Video Watermarking in DWT Domain Using Chaotic Mixtures”, IEEE Latin America Transactions, Vol. 8, No.3, pp. 304 - 310, 2010.

Gandhe S.T., Potdar U. and Talele K.T., "Dual Watermarking in Video Using Discrete Wavelet Transform", In Proceedings of Second International Conference on Machine Vision, pp. 216 - 219, 2009.

K. Ait Saadi, A. Guessoum, A. Bouridane, "Efficient pre-processing watermark for robust video watermarking of H.264/ AVC", International Journal of Advanced Media and Communication, Vol. 4, No: 3, pp: 219-234, 2010.

Xinghao Jiang, Tanfeng Sun, Jianhua Li and Ye Yun, "A Novel Real-Time MPEG-2 Video Watermarking Scheme in Copyright Protection", Digital Watermarking, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol: 5450, pp: 45-51, 2009.

Kareem Ahmed, Ibrahim El-Henawy and Ahmed Atwan, "Novel DWT video watermarking schema ", Machine Graphics & Vision International Journal archive, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 363-380, 2009.

Yan Liua and Jiying Zhao ," A new video watermarking algorithm based on 1D DFT and Radon transform ",Signal Processing, Vol. 90, No. 2, pp. 626-639, 2010.

Jing Zhang, Anthony T. S. Ho, Gang Qiu, Pina Marziliano, "Robust Video Watermarking of H.264/AVC", IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, Vol. 54, No: 2, pp: 205 - 209, 2007.

Patrizio Campisi and Alessandro Neri, "Perceptual Video Watermarking in the 3D-DWT Domain Using a Multiplicative Approach ", Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3710, pp. 432-443, 2005.

Gonzalez R.C., Woods R.E., “Digital Image Processing”, Addison Wesley, 2002

M. Mohammed Sathik, N.Ravia Shabnam Parveen, "Feature extraction on colored x-ray images by bit-plane slicing technique", International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No: 7, pp: 2820-2824, 2010.

A. Mitra, Y. V. Subba Rao and S. R. M. Prasanna, "A New Image Encryption Approach using Combinational Permutation Techniques", International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 1, No: 2, pp: 127-131, 2006.

M. Ezhilarasan, P. Thambidurai, "A Hybrid Transformation Technique for Advanced Video Coding", Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal, Vol. 3, No: 3, 2008.

Vetterli, M. and J. Kovacevic, Wavelets and Subband Coding. Prentice Hall, USA, 1995.

Mahesh R. Sanghavi , Dr. Mrs. Archana M. Rajurkar, Prof. Dr. Rajeev Mathur, Kainjan S. Kotecha ,“A Robust Scheme for Digital Video Watermarking based on Scrambling of Watermark,” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887), Vol.35, No.2, December 2011.

A.Essaouabi and F.Regragui, E.Ibnelhaj, “A blind Wavelet-Based Digital Watermarking for Video” IJVIPNS Vol. 9 No: 9, pp: 471-476, 2009.

A.Essaouabi and F.Regragui, E.Ibnelhaj, “A Wavelet-Based Digital Watermarking for Video” IJCSIS Vol. 6, No.1, pp: 29-33, 2009.

T.Jayamalar and Dr. V. Radha, “Enhanced Nested Video Watermarking using Wavelets and geometric warping” IJMA, Vol.3, No.4, pp: 143-157, November 2011.

S. A. M. Gilani, A. N. Skodras, Adaptive Image Watermarking Using Multiple Transforms, (2007) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 2 (6), pp. 653 - 660.

A. Ouled Zaid, A. Makhloufi, A. Bouallegue, C. Olivier, A. Nait-Ali, Blind Watermarking Integrated to Wavelet Image Coding Scheme, (2008) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 3 (1), pp. 53-61.

J. N. Ellinas, Stereo Image Reversible Watermarking, (2008) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 3 (5), pp. 457-464.

A. Sabri, M. Karoud, H. Tairi, A. Aarab, A Robust Image Watermarking Based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition, (2009) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 4 (3), pp. 360-365.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize