Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Assessment of Energy Efficiency of Retrofitting Existing Residential Buildings Using Multiple Energy-Saving Measures

Ahmed A. Freewan(1*), Rawan N. T. Kan'an(2)

(1) Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
(2) Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
(*) Corresponding author



Retrofitting of existing buildings is one of the most effective ways to decrease building energy consumptions and reduce CO2 emissions, making buildings more comfortable and sustainable. This research aims at improving the energy performance of existing buildings through minimizing lighting, cooling, and heating loads. The study has used a real case data and energy efficiency simulation using IES-VE, a software package for building energy analysis and sustainable design. A single existing family building in Jordan has been used as a case study. The paper has studied many energy saving measures based on the economical value, the technological and the architectural features of the building, in order to show how related variables could improve the building’s energy performance. The research has studied variables like roof insulation, shading devices, and double-glazing. A combination of all the strategies has resulted in an efficient retrofit measure that has helped reducing energy consumption by an average of 40% annually, controlling heat loss, and gain. Roof insulation and shading devices have been the most efficient measures for reducing energy consumption in buildings while the PV has been the most efficient as energy saving. The results of this research have approved that studying retrofit scenarios on real case and have helped to provide real measurements and real impact of applying energy measures and how to develop simulation setting. It has helped developing guidelines and references for decision and policy makers, future investments and designer based on the research results. A matrix has been developed to compromise between initial cost, performance, feasibility, payback period of retrofit technologies, and finally installation process.
Copyright © 2021 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Shading Devices Roof Insulation; Double Glazing; Heating Load; Cooling Load; Daylight; IES-VE

Full Text:



M. Zinzi, S. Agnoli, G. Battistini, G. Bernabini, Retrofit of an Existing School in Italy with High Energy Standards. Energy Procedia 48 (2014) 1529-1538.

D. Zhao, A.P. McCoy, J. Du, P. Agee, Y. Lu, Interaction effects of building technology and resident behavior on energy consumption in residential buildings. Energy and Buildings 134 (2017) 223-233.

S. Copiello, L. Gabrielli, Analysis of building energy consumption through panel data: The role played by the economic drivers. Energy and Buildings 145 (2017) 130-143.

A. Allouhi, Y. El Fouih, T. Kousksou, A. Jamil, Y. Zeraouli, Y. Mourad, Energy consumption and efficiency in buildings: current status and future trends. Journal of Cleaner Production 109 (2015) 118-130.

C. Weissmann, T. Hong, C.-A. Graubner, Analysis of heating load diversity in German residential districts and implications for the application in district heating systems. Energy and Buildings 139 (2017) 302-313.

Y. Ji, P. Xu, P. Duan, X. Lu, Estimating hourly cooling load in commercial buildings using a thermal network model and electricity submetering data. Applied Energy 169 (2016) 309-323.

D. Zheng, L. Yu, L. Wang, J. Tao, A screening methodology for building multiple energy retrofit measures package considering economic and risk aspects. Journal of Cleaner Production 208 (2019) 1587-1602.

L. Zheng, J. Lai, Environmental and economic evaluations of building energy retrofits: Case study of a commercial building. Building and Environment 145 (2018) 14-23.

A.S. Alshehry, M. Belloumi, Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: The case of Saudi Arabia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 41 (2015) 237-247.

I. Hanif, Impact of fossil fuels energy consumption, energy policies, and urban sprawl on carbon emissions in East Asia and the Pacific: A panel investigation. Energy Strategy Reviews 21 (2018) 16-24.

P. Shen, W. Braham, Y. Yi, The feasibility and importance of considering climate change impacts in building retrofit analysis. Applied Energy 233-234 (2019) 254-270.

S. Kais, H. Sami, An econometric study of the impact of economic growth and energy use on carbon emissions: Panel data evidence from fifty eight countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 59 (2016) 1101-1110.

Y. Long, Y. Yoshida, R. Zhang, L. Sun, Revealing Monthly Urban Carbon Leakage Generated from Residential Energy Consumption. Energy Procedia 152 (2018) 774-779.

C. E. Kontokosta, Modeling the energy retrofit decision in commercial office buildings. Energy and Buildings 131 (2016) 1-20.

N. Casquero-Modrego, M. Goñi-Modrego, Energy retrofit of an existing affordable building envelope in Spain, case study. Sustainable Cities and Society 44 (2019) 395-405.

O. O. Tokede, P. E. D. Love, D. D. Ahiaga-Dagbui, Life cycle option appraisal in retrofit buildings. Energy and Buildings 178 (2018) 279-293.

A. Bardhan, D. Jaffee, C. Kroll, N. Wallace, Energy efficiency retrofits for U.S. housing: Removing the bottlenecks. Regional Science and Urban Economics 47 (2014) 45-60.

Z. Zhou, S. Zhang, C. Wang, J. Zuo, Q. He, R. Rameezdeen, Achieving energy efficient buildings via retrofitting of existing buildings: a case study. Journal of Cleaner Production 112 (2016) 3605-3615.

H.-Y. Chan, S.B. Riffat, J. Zhu, Review of passive solar heating and cooling technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14 (2010) 781-789.

E. Asadi, M.G. da Silva, C.H. Antunes, L. Dias, Multi-objective optimization for building retrofit strategies: A model and an application. Energy and Buildings 44 (2012) 81-87.

M. Abdallah, K. El-Rayes, C. Clevenger, Minimizing Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Aging Buildings. Procedia Engineering 118 (2015) 886-893.

K. J. Chua, S.K. Chou, W.M. Yang, J. Yan, Achieving better energy-efficient air conditioning - A review of technologies and strategies. Applied Energy 104 (2013) 87-104.

F. Asdrubali, I. Ballarini, V. Corrado, L. Evangelisti, G. Grazieschi, C. Guattari, Energy and environmental payback times for an NZEB retrofit. Building and Environment 147 (2019) 461-472.

G. Trotta, The determinants of energy efficient retrofit investments in the English residential sector. Energy Policy 120 (2018) 175-182.

Y. Tan, G. Liu, Y. Zhang, C. Shuai, G.Q. Shen, Green retrofit of aged residential buildings in Hong Kong: A preliminary study. Building and Environment 143 (2018) 89-98.

S. E. Chidiac, E. J. C. Catania, E. Morofsky, S. Foo, Effectiveness of single and multiple energy retrofit measures on the energy consumption of office buildings. Energy 36 (2011) 5037-5052.

NEPCO, National Electric Power Company Annual Report, in, 2017.

R. Alawneh, F.E. Mohamed Ghazali, H. Ali, M. Asif, Assessing the contribution of water and energy efficiency in green buildings to achieve United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in Jordan. Building and Environment 146 (2018) 119-132.

T.A. Hamed, L. Bressler, Energy security in Israel and Jordan: The role of renewable energy sources. Renewable Energy 135 (2019) 378-389.

M. Fowlie, M. Greenstone, C. Wolfram, Do Energy Efficiency Investments Deliver? Evidence from the Weatherization Assistance Program. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 133 (2018) 1597-1644.

S. Nižetić, A.M. Papadopoulos, Concept of Building Evaluation Methodology for Gap Estimation Between Designed and Achieved Energy Savings. Procedia Environmental Sciences 38 (2017) 538-545.

J. Liang, Y. Qiu, T. James, B.L. Ruddell, M. Dalrymple, S. Earl, A. Castelazo, Do energy retrofits work? Evidence from commercial and residential buildings in Phoenix. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management (2017).

A. Albatayneh, D. Alterman, A. Page, B. Moghtaderi, The Impact of the Thermal Comfort Models on the Prediction of Building Energy Consumption. Sustainability 10 (2018).

J.M.D. JorMeteorol, Jordan Meteorological Department, in, 2015.

IES, Thermal Calculations 2020.

Y. Schwartz, R. Raslan, Variations in results of building energy simulation tools, and their impact on BREEAM and LEED ratings: A case study. Energy and Buildings 62 (2013) 350-359.

D.B. Crawley, J.W. Hand, M. Kummert, B.T. Griffith, Contrasting the capabilities of building energy performance simulation programs. Building and Environment 43 (2008) 661-673.

A. Al-janabi, M. Kavgic, A. Mohammadzadeh, A. Azzouz, Comparison of EnergyPlus and IES to model a complex university building using three scenarios: Free-floating, ideal air load system, and detailed. Journal of Building Engineering 22 (2019) 262-280.

IES-VE, Integrated Environmental Solutions Virtual Environment, 2015.

W.A. Friess, K. Rakhshan, T.A. Hendawi, S. Tajerzadeh, Wall insulation measures for residential villas in Dubai: A case study in energy efficiency. Energy and Buildings 44 (2012) 26-32.

I.M.C.S. Illankoon, V.W.Y. Tam, K.N. Le, L. Shen, Key credit criteria among international green building rating tools. Journal of Cleaner Production 164 (2017) 209-220.

R.G. Reed, A. Krajinovic-Bilos, M.A.J. Reed, Green Building Rating Systems A2 - Abraham, Martin A, in, Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies, Elsevier, Oxford, 2017, pp. 99-112.

S. Gobbi, V. Puglisi, A. Ciaramella, A Rating System for Integrating Building Performance Tools in Developing Countries. Energy Procedia 96 (2016) 333-344.

A.A.Y. Freewan, Impact of external shading devices on thermal and daylighting performance of offices in hot climate regions. Solar Energy 102 (2014) 14-30.

K. J. Lomas, R. Giridharan, Thermal comfort standards, measured internal temperatures and thermal resilience to climate change of free-running buildings: A case-study of hospital wards. Building and Environment 55 (2012) 57-72.

R.W. Amstalden, M. Kost, C. Nathani, D.M. Imboden, Economic potential of energy-efficient retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations. Energy Policy 35 (2007) 1819-1829.

M.I. Al-Najideen, S.S. Alrwashdeh, Design of a solar photovoltaic system to cover the electricity demand for the faculty of Engineering- Mu'tah University in Jordan. Resource-Efficient Technologies 3 (2017) 440-445.

Lamedica, R., Muzi, F., Prudenzi, A., Elia, S., Podestà, L., Ruvio, A., Sangiovanni, S., Santini, E., Trentini, F., Electrical and Thermal Integrated Load Management of Tertiary Buildings, (2018) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 13 (4), pp. 276-289.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize