Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Investigation of Transformer Oil Characteristics by the Effect of Rapid Temperature Fluctuation

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



In future, Distributed Generation (DG) and charging station penetration (as a result of electric vehicle development) will grow rapidly. Both of them will be able to connect directly into distribution transformer. Their penetration enables to change the daily loading pattern of a distribution transformer. During this time, many studies have been conducted in order to determine the DG effect and the charging station to the aging of the transformer. However, those studies have not investigated the effect on the transformer directly. Under their penetration, the liquid insulation may experience different electrical and thermal stress. Therefore, a study to evaluate the condition of the transformer insulation directly will be offered, especially on the transformer oil. In this study the effect of temperature fluctuations as an illustration of the penetration of EV charging and DG on the transformer to the transformer oil characteristics is investigated. Temperature fluctuations are made to resemble the transformer loading profile when there is penetration of EV charging and DG. The evaluation is performed by analyzing physical, electrical, and DGA characteristics of transformer oil. Moreover, the analysis compares the result with effect of transformer daily load and constant temperature pattern. The results show that rapid temperature fluctuation makes the transformer oil quality reduce faster than it should be.
Copyright © 2018 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Physical and Electrical Characteristic of Transformer oil; Breakdown Voltage Test; Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA); Rapid Temperature Fluctuation

Full Text:



Kerry D. McBee, Transformer Aging due to High Penetrations of PV EV Charging and Energy Storage Applications, Green Technologies Conference (GreenTech) 2017 Ninth Annual IEEE, 2017.

A. Hasanzadeh, C. S. Edrington and T. Bevis, Comprehensive study of power quality criteria generated by PV converters and their impacts on distribution transformers, IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Montreal, QC, 2012, pp. 5820-5826.

S. M. Mousavi Agah and H. Askarian Abyaneh, Quantification of the Distribution Transformer Life Extension Value of Distributed Generation, in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1820-1828, July 2011.

D. Martin, S. Goodwin, O. Krause and T. Saha, The effect of PV on transformer ageing: University of Queensland's experience, 2014 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC), Perth, WA, 2014, pp. 1-6.

A. S. Masoum, P. S. Moses, M. A. S. Masoum and A. Abu-Siada, Impact of rooftop PV generation on distribution transformer and voltage profile of residential and commercial networks, 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), Washington, DC, 2012, pp. 1-7.

Hamzeh, M., Vahidi, B., Akarian-Abyaneh, H., Reliability evaluation of distribution transformers with high penetration of distribution generation, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 2015, 73, 163-169

M. A. Awadallah, T. Xu, B. Venkatesh and B. N. Singh, On the Effects of Solar Panels on Distribution Transformers, in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 1176-1185, June 2016

S. M. Agah and H. A. Abyaneh, Distribution Transformer Loss-of-Life Reduction by Increasing Penetration of Distributed Generation, in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 1128-1136, April 2011

H. Pezeshki, P. J. Wolfs and G. Ledwich, Impact of High PV Penetration on Distribution Transformer Insulation Life, in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 1212-1220, June 2014

R. Godina, N. G. Paterakis, O. Erdinç, E. M. G. Rodrigues and J. P. S. Catalão, Electric vehicles home charging impact on a distribution transformer in a Portuguese Island, 2015 International Symposium on Smart Electric Distribution Systems and Technologies (EDST), Vienna, 2015, pp. 74-79

Sexauer, J. M., McBee, K.D., Bloch, K. A., Applications of probability model to analyze the effect of electric vehicle chargers on distribution transformers, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, issue 2, May 2013.

McBee, K. D., Simoes, M. G., General smart meter guidelines to accurately assess the aging of distribution transformers, IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, vol. 5, issue 6, Nov. 2014

Munir, S., Yun Wei Li, Residential distribution system harmonic compensation using PV interfacing inverter, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 4, issue 2, May 2013

H. Turker, S. Bacha, D. Chatroux, and A. Hably, Low-voltage transformer loss-of-life assessments for a high penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1323-1331, July 2012

A. D. Hilshey, P. D. Hines, P. Rezaei, and J. R. Dowds, Estimating the impact of electric vehicle smart charging on distribution transformer aging, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 905-913, June 2013

H. Turker, S. Bacha, and A. Hably, Rule-based charging of plug-in electric vehicle (PEVs): Impact on the aging rate of low voltage transformers, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 1012-1019, June 2014

Q. Gong, S. Midlam-Mohler, V. Marano, and G. Rizzoni, Distribution of PEV charging resources to balance transformer life and customer satisfication, in Proc. IEEE Int. Elect. Veh. Conf. (IEVC), Greenville, SC, USA, Mar. 2012, pp. 1-7

Qian, K.; Zhou, C.; Yuan, Y. Impacts of high penetration level of fully electric vehicles charging loads on the thermal ageing of power transformers, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 2015, 65, 102–112

Bayliss, C. R., Hardy, B. J, Power Transformers, In Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering, 4th ed, Oxford: Newnes, 2012, pp. 543-614.

Banumathi, S., Chandrasekar, S., Analysis of Partial Discharge Characteristics of Olive and Castor Oil as Dielectric Medium for HV Applications, (2013) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 8 (6), pp. 1882-1889.

Abdel-Fattah, M., Lehtonen, M., The High-Temperature Effect on the Breakdown Voltage of an Air-Gap at Atmospheric Pressure with Reference to Paschen Curve, (2013) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 8 (6), pp. 1876-1881.

I. M. Y. Negara, High Voltage Engineering, Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta, 2013.

IEC 60156 Insulating Liquids - Determination of the breakdown voltage at power frequency - Test Method 1995

IEC Guide to the Interpretation of Dissolved and Free Gases Analysis-Mineral Oil-Impregnated Electrical Equipment in Service 60599 Geneva Switzerland:IEC 1999.

E. Wannapring, C. Suwanasri and T. Suwanasri, Dissolved Gas Analysis methods for distribution transformers, 2016 13th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), Chiang Mai, 2016, pp. 1-6.

Chapman, Stephen J., 2005.Electric Machinery Fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Zambrano-Perilla, S., Ramos, G., Celeita Rodriguez, D., Modeling and Impacts of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Residential Distribution Systems with Coordinated Charging Schemes, (2016) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 9 (4), pp. 227-237.

Malik, F., Lehtonen, M., Comparison of Electric Vehicles Charging Strategies and Their Impact on Network Capacity, (2015) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 10 (2), pp. 214-220.

Tellez, S., Villamil, W., Rosero Garcia, J., Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts by Increasing Demand and Varying Customer Charging Behaviors, (2016) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 11 (2), pp. 142-150.

Annathurai, V., Gan, C., Ibrahim, K., Baharin, K., Ghani, M., A Review on the Impact of Distributed Energy Resources Uncertainty on Distribution Networks, (2016) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 11 (4), pp. 420-427.

Qian, Y., Chen, X., Xu, Y., Kong, P., Wang, L., Li, Z., Sheng, G., Jiang, X., Frequency Characteristics Analysis of Transient Earth Voltages Aroused by Partial Discharge in Switchgears, (2015) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 10 (2), pp. 321-328.

Taha, I., Ghoneim, S., Zaini, H., A Fuzzy Diagnostic System for Incipient Transformer Faults Based on DGA of the Insulating Transformer Oils, (2016) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 11 (3), pp. 305-313.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize