Biofouling Issue on Marine Renewable Energy Converters: a State of the Art Review on Impacts and Prevention
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In recent years, several studies have been conducted to evaluate damages caused by biofouling that results in organisms attachment on a surface in contact with water for a period of time. As presented, the biofouling problem seems quite simple. Unfortunately, there are a multitude of organisms that cause biofouling as well as several types of affected surfaces and, consequently, lead to different solutions to address the biofouling problem. In a marine renewable energies context, the biofouling issues facing submerged systems are subject to the same settling processes. This paper is therefore an attempt to provide an exhaustive state of the art review, which allow assessing the biofouling problem in marine renewable energy converters (MREC). The proposed review will specifically highlight the marine environment impacts and the solutions to prevent fouling. Challenges faced by the marine renewable energies market for massive deployment are also discussed.
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