Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Biofouling Issue on Marine Renewable Energy Converters: a State of the Art Review on Impacts and Prevention

Hosna Titah-Benbouzid(1), Mohamed Benbouzid(2*)

(1) University of Brest, Brest, France. FRE CNRS 3744 - Institut de Recherche Dupuy de Lôme, France
(2) University of Brest, Brest, France. FRE CNRS 3744 - Institut de Recherche Dupuy de Lôme, France
(*) Corresponding author


DOI: https://doi.org/10.15866/irecon.v5i3.12749

Abstract


In recent years, several studies have been conducted to evaluate damages caused by biofouling that results in organisms attachment on a surface in contact with water for a period of time. As presented, the biofouling problem seems quite simple. Unfortunately, there are a multitude of organisms that cause biofouling as well as several types of affected surfaces and, consequently, lead to different solutions to address the biofouling problem. In a marine renewable energies context, the biofouling issues facing submerged systems are subject to the same settling processes. This paper is therefore an attempt to provide an exhaustive state of the art review, which allow assessing the biofouling problem in marine renewable energy converters (MREC). The proposed review will specifically highlight the marine environment impacts and the solutions to prevent fouling. Challenges faced by the marine renewable energies market for massive deployment are also discussed.
Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.

Keywords


Marine Renewable Energy Converters; Biofouling; Corrosion; Microorganisms; Prevention; Marine Environment

Full Text:

PDF


References


J.P. Rolland and J.M. de Simone, “Synthesis and characterization of perfluoropolyether graft terpolymers for biofouling applications,” Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 88, pp. 606-607, 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ma0524777

H. Titah-Benbouzid and M.E.H. Benbouzid, “Marine renewable energy converters and biofouling: A review on impacts and prevention,” in Proceedings of the 2015 EWTEC, Nantes (France), pp. 1-8, Paper 09P1-4-2, September 2015.

http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/earth/stories/s24268.htm/, 2007.

J.M. Anderson, M.J. Cima, R. Langer, R.S. Shawgo, M.S. Shive, H. von Recum and G. Voskerician, “Biocompatibility and biofouling of MEMS drug delivery devices”, Biomaterials, vol. 24, n°11, pp. 1959-67, 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0142-9612(02)00565-3

M. Kolari, “Attachment mechanisms and properties of bacterial biofilms on non-living surfaces”, Dissertationes Biocentri Viikki Universitatis Helsingiensis, vol. 12, pp.129, 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1824-8_54

J.A. Callow, M.E. Callow, “Trends in the development of environmentally friendly fouling-resistant marine coatings”, Nature Communications, vol. 2, n°244, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1251

T. Gehrke and W. Sand, “Interactions between microorganisms and physicochemical factors cause MIC of steel pilings in harbours”, NACE International Corrosion, pp. 8, 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/nbs.mono.58

Biofouling formation and remedial measures, http://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/enrc/default.htm/, 2004.

http://envrionment.blogspot.fr/2008/11/biofouling.html, 2008.

C. Hellio, D. Yebra, M. Apolinario and R. Coutinho, Advances in Marine Antifouling Coatings and Technologies, Understanding the Biofouling of Offshore and Deep-Sea Structures, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, p. 132, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9781845696313.1.132

F. Mineur, E.J. Cook, D. Minchin, K. Bohn, A. MacLeod and C.A. Maggs, “Changing coasts: Marine aliens and artificial structures,” Oceanography and Marine Biology, vol. 50, pp. 189-234, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b12157-5

B. Polagye and J. Thomson, “Screening for biofouling and corrosion of tidal energy device materials,” Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, Oregon State University, Report 1, April 2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/1326376

M. Wahl, “Marine epibiosis. I. Fouling and antifouling: some basic aspects,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 58, pp.175-189, 1989.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps058175

R. Baier, Early Events of Micro-Fouling of all Heat Transfer Equipment. In E.F.C. Somerscules and J.G. Knudsen, (Ed.) Fouling of Heat Transfer Equipment. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, pp. 293-304, 1981.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0735-1933(00)00162-7

S.C. Dexter, “Influence of substrate wettability on the formation of bacterial slime films on solid surfaces immersed in natural sea water,” in Proceedings of the 1977 International Congress of Marine Corrosion and Fouling, Boulogne (France), pp. 137-144, 1977.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(77)90070-0

S.C. Dexter, “Influence of substratum critical surface tension on bacterial adhesion - In situ studies,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 70, pp. 346-354, 1978.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(79)90038-9

M. Fletcher, G.I. Loeb, “Influence of substratum characteristics on the attachment of a marine pseudomonad to solid surfaces,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 37, pp. 67-72, 1979.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-404503-3.50052-5

D.R. Walt, J.B. Smulow, S.S. Turesky and R.G. Hill, “The effect of gravity on initial microbial adhesion,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 107, n°2, pp. 334-336, 1985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(85)90185-7

K.C. Marshall. “Mechanisms of adhesion of marine bacteria to surfaces,” in Proceedings of the 1972 International Congress of Marine Corrosion and Fouling, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iroh.19790640304

W.A. Corpe, L. Matsuuchi and B. Armbruster, “Secretion of adhesive polymers and attachment of marine bacteria to surfaces,” in Proceedings of the 1976 International Biodeterioration Symposium London (UK), pp. 433-442 1976.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-469050-9.50009-0

A. J. Wicken, Bacterial Cell Walls and Surfaces. In: D.C. Savag, M. Fletcher, (Ed.) Bacterial Adhesion. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, pp. 45-70, 1985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6514-7_2

M. Fletcher and S. McEldowney, “Microbial attachment to nonbiological surfaces,” in Proceedings of the 1984 International Symposium of Microbiology and Ecology, Detroit (USA), pp. 124-129, 1984.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02011715

L.J. Douglas. “Adhesion of pathogenic Candida species to host surfaces,” Microbiology Science, vol. 2, n°8, pp. 243-247, 1985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1097(85)90151-x

T.R. Tosteson, R. Revuelta, B.R. Zaidi, S.H. Imam and R.F. Bard, “Aggregation-adhesion enhancing macromolecules and the specificity of marine microbial surface interactions,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 104, n°1, pp.60-71, 1983.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(85)90009-8

D. Kirchman, S. Graham, D. Reish and R. Mitchell, “Lectins may mediate in the settlement and metamorphosis of Janua (Dexiospira) brasiliensis Grube (Polychaeta: Spirorbidae),” Marine Biology Letters, vol. 3, pp. 131-142, 1982.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(81)90186-6

K.C. Marshall, R. Stout and R. Mitchell, “Mechanisms of the initial events in the sorption of marine bacteria to surfaces,” Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 68, pp. 337-348, 1971.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/00221287-68-3-337

W.A. Corpe, Attachment of Manne Bacteria to Solid Surfaces. In: R.S. Manly, (Ed.) Adhesion in Biological Systems, Academic Press, London, pp. 73-87, 1970.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-469050-9.50009-0

T.R. Cuba and N.J. Blake, “The initial development of a marine fouling assemblage on a natural substrate in a subtropical estuary,” Botanica Marina, vol. 26, pp. 259-264, 1983.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/botm.1983.26.6.259

B. Cooksey, K.E. Cooksey, C.A. Millar, J.H. Paul, R. Rubin and D. Webster. The Attachment of Microfouling Diatoms. In: J.D. Costlow, R.C. Tipper, (Ed.) Marine Biodetermination: An Interdisciplinary Study. E. & F.N. Spon Ltd , London, pp. 167-172, 1984.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9720-9_22

S. Ferreira and U. Seeliger, “The colonization process of algal epiphytes on Ruppia maritima L.,” Botanica marina, vol. 28, pp. 245-249, 1985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/botm.1985.28.6.245

Y. Cuomo, F. Vanzanella, E. Fresi, F. Cinelli and L. Mazzella, “Fungal flora of Posidonia oceanica and its ecological significance,” Transactions of the British Mycological Society, vol. 84, n°1, pp. 35-40, 1985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0007-1536(85)80217-5

J.H. Connell and R.O. Slatyer, “Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization,” The American Naturalist, vol. 111, pp. 1119-1144, 1977.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/283241

A.I. Railkin, Marine Biofouling: Colonization Processes and Defenses. CRC Press, Boca Raton 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9780203503232

T.A. Potts and A.W. Hulbert, “Structural influences of artificial and natural habitats on fish aggregations in Onslow Bay, North Carolina,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 55, n°2-3, pp. 609-622, 1994.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0025-326x(97)84711-x

R.E. Spieler, D.S. Gilliam and R.L. Sherman, “Artificial substrate and coral reef restoration: What do we need to know to know what we need?,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 69, pp. 1013-1030, 2001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/19155

O. Langhamer, D. Wilhelmsson and J. Engström, “Artificial reef effect and fouling impacts on offshore wave power foundations and buoys – A pilot study estuarine,” Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 82, pp. 426-432, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.02.009

A. von Jouanne, T. Brekken, T. Lettenmaier, E. Amon, S. Moran and A. Yokochi, “Wave energy industry research and ocean testing solutions to advance the wave energy industry,” in Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE PESGM, Washington (USA), pp. 1-5, July 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/pesgm.2014.6939009

A. Theophanatos and J. Wolfram, “Hydrodynamic loading on macro-roughened cylinders of various aspect ratios”, Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, vol.111, pp. 214-222, 1989.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3257150

I. Jusoh and J. Wolfram, “Effects of marine growth and hydrodynamic loading on offshore structures, Jurnal Mekanikal, vol. 1, pp. 77-96, 1996.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/24146-ms

W. Shi, H.C. Park, J.H. Baek, C.-W. Kim, Y.C. Kim and H.K. Shin, “Study on the marine growth effect on the dynamic response of offshore wind turbines”, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol.13, pp. 1167-1176, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12541-012-0155-7

M. Eriksson, J. Isberg and M. Leijon, “Hydrodynamic modelling of a direct drive wave energy converter,” International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 43, pp.1377-1387, 2005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijengsci.2005.05.014

A.K.A. Macleod, “De-risking structural loading calculations for marine renewable energy devices”, NERC Internship Placement Scheme Report: Marine Renewable Energy, Science of the Environment, May 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118603185.ch2

R.E. Harris, L. Johanning and J. D. Wolfram, “Mooring systems for wave energy converters: a review of design issues and choices,” in Proceedings of the 2004 MAREC, Blyth (UK), pp. 1-10, July 2004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1243/14750902jeme54

P.K. Kundu and I.M. Cohen, Fluid Mechanics. Elsevier Academic Press, London, 2004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0022112002233704

M. Leijon, O. Danielsson M. Eriksson, K. Thorburn, H. Bernhoff, J. Isberg, J. Sundberg, I. Ivanova, E. Sjostedt, O. Agren, K.E. Karlsson and A. Wolfbrandt, “An electrical approach to wave energy conversion,” Renewable Energy, vol. 31, pp. 1309-1319, 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2005.07.009

Regional Coastal Monitoring Programmes, http://www.channelcoast.org/gallery/viewphoto/equipment/oceanographic_instruments/directional_waverider/1751/, 2014.

O. Langhamer, Colonization of Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) on Offshore Wave Power Installations. In Biofouling: Types, Impacts and Anti-Fouling, pp. 295-308. Nova Science Publishers, 2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/43.2.509

P.L. Fraenkel. “Power from marine currents,” Proc. IMech Part A-Journal of Power and Energy, vol. 216, pp. 1-14, 2002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1243/095765002760024791

K.W. Ng, W.H. Lam, K.C. Ng, “2002-2012: 10 years of research progress in horizontal-axis marine current turbines,” Energies, vol. 6, pp. 1497-1526, 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en6031497

J.A.C. Orme, I. Masters and R. T. Griffiths, “Investigation of the effect of biofouling on the efficiency of marine current turbines,” in Proceedings of the 2001 MAREC, Newcastle (UK), pp. 91-99, March 2001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-7836(00)00315-5

W.M.J. Batten, A.S. Bahaj, A.F. Molland, J.R. Chaplin, “The prediction of the hydro-dynamic performance of marine current turbines,” Renewable Energy, vol. 33, pp. 1085–1096, 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2007.05.043

J.M. Walker, K.A. Flack, E.E. Lust, M.P. Schult and L. Luznik, “Experimental and numerical studies of blade roughness and fouling on marine current turbine performance,” Renewable Energy, vol. 66, pp. 257-267, 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2013.12.012

R.P.J.O.M. van Rooij and WA. Timmer, “Roughness sensitivity considerations for thick rotor blade airfoils,” Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol. 125, n°4, pp. 468–78, 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.1624614

WA. Timmer and P. Schaffarczyk, “The effect of roughness at high Reynolds numbers on the performance of Aerofoil DU 97-W-300Mod,” Wind Energy, vol. 7, pp. 295–307, 2004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/we.136

W.M.J. Batten, A.S. Bahaj, A.F. Molland and J.R. Chaplin, “The prediction of the hydrodynamic performance of marine current turbines”, Renewable Energy, vol. 33,pp. 1085–1096, 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2007.05.043

S. Durr and J. Thomason, Ed. Biofouling. Chap. 19, pp. 267-287, Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, 2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0047404511000510

M. Mueller and R. Wallace, “Enabling science and technology for marine renewable energy,” Energy Policy, vol. 36, pp. 4376-4382, 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.035

A.K.A. Macleod, “De-risking structural loading calculations for Marine Renewable Energy Devices”, NERC Internship Placement Scheme Report, B.Sc. University of Aberdeen-MSc Heriot-Watt University, May 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.01.047

A. Abbott, P.D. Abel, D.W. Arnold, A. Milne, “Cost-benefit analysis of the use of TBT: The case for a treatment approach,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 258, pp. 5-19, 2000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(00)00505-2

A.M. Rouhi, “The squeeze of tributyltin,” Chemical and. Engineering. News, vol. 27, pp. 41-42, 1998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cen-v076n017.p041

J.J. Cooney and R.J. Tang, “Copper oxide impregnated textiles with potent biocidal activities,” Methods in. Enzymology, vol. 310, pp. 637-645, 1999.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.04-2029fje

M.S. Brancato, “Impacts of invasive species introduced through the shipping industry,” in Proceedings of the 1999 MTS/IEEE OCEANS, Seattle (USA), vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 676, September 1999.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/oceans.1999.804779

K. Reise, S. Gollasch and W.J. Wolff, “Introduced marine species of the North Sea coast,” Helgoländer Meeresunters, vol. 52, pp. 219-234, 1999.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02908898

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/isrctn11616985

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-95855-7_10

N.I. Kopylov, Y.M. Kaplin, V.P. Litvinov and Y.D. Kaminskii, “Large-scale use of arsenic in the production of antifouling coatings,” Environmental Problems, vol. 41, n°5, pp. 780-785, 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/s0040579507050582

International Maritime Organization, 2011: http://www.imo.org/About/Conventions/ListOfConventions/Pages/International-Convention-on-the-Control-of-Harmful-Anti-fouling-Systems-on-Ships-%28AFS%29.aspx
http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/ilwo-va2

http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264244047-34-en

S. M. Olsen, L.T. Pedersen, M.H. Hermann, S. Kiil and K. Dam-Johansen, “Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coating,” Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, vol. 6, n°2, pp. 187-199, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11998-008-9143-3

S. Manzo, S. Buono and C. Cremisini, “Toxic effects of irgarol and diuron on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus early development, fertilization, and offspring quality,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 51, n°1, 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-004-0167-0

http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/oceans.1988.794873

U. Gerigk, U. Schneider and U. Stewen, “The present status of TBT copolymer antifouling paints versus TBT-free technology,” American Chemical Society, Division of Environmental Chemistry, vol. 38, n°1, pp. 91-94, 1998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927010600912291

M.A. Champ, “The Status of the treaty to ban TBT in marine antifouling paints and alternatives,” in Proceedings of the 2001 UJNR (US/Japan) Marine Facilities Panel Meeting, Hawaii (USA), November 2001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-326x(87)90492-9

M.A. Champ, “A review of organotin regulatory strategies, pending actions, related costs and benefits,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 258, pp. 21-71, 2000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(00)00506-4

C. Anderson, “TBT-free anti-fouling coatings in 2003: For better or for worse?,” Corrosion Management, vol. 40, n°1, pp. 21-24, 2002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/acmm.2003.12850bab.028

B.S. Smith, “Male characteristics on female mud snails caused by antifouling bottom paints,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 1, n°1, pp. 22-25, 1981.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.2550010106

International Maritime Organization, 2002: http://www.imo.org/OurWork/Environment/Anti-foulingSystems/Pages/Default.aspx/

S.L. Tong, F.Y. Pang, S.M. Phang and H.C. Lai, “Tributyltin distribution in the coastal environment of peninsular Malaysia,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 91, n°2, pp. 209-216, 1996.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(95)00048-8

L.D. Chambers, K.R. Stokes, F.C. Walsh and R.J.K. Wood, “Modern approaches to marine antifouling coatings,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, pp. 3642-3652, 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.08.129

A. Terlizzi, S. Fraschetti, P. Gianguzza, M. Faimali and F. Boero, “Environmental impact of antifouling technologies: State of the art and perspectives,” Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, vol.11, n°4, pp. 311-317, 2001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.459

I. Omae, “Organotin antifouling paints and their alternatives,” Applied Organometallic Chemistry, vol. 17, n°2, pp. 81-105, 2003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aoc.396

J. Lewis, “Hull fouling as a vector for the translocation of marine organisms: Report 1 and 2,” Dept. of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia, Marine Science and Ecology Pty. Ltd., Australia, 2002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.11.103

G. Swain, “Accelerated testing of antifouling coatings for use on offshore structures,” in Proceedings of the 1986 MTS/IEEE, Washington (USA), pp. 221-226, September 1986.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/oceans.1986.1160514

D.M. Yebra, S. Kiil and K. Dam-Johansen, “Antifouling technology-past, present and future steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 50, pp. 75-104, 2004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2003.06.001

R.F. Brady Jr. and I.L. Singer, “Mechanical factors favoring release from fouling release coatings,” Biofouling, vol. 15, pp. 73-81, 2000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927010009386299

J.A. Lewis, “Proceedings: National Shipping Industry Conference,” Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Canberra (Australia), March 2001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08102597.1985.11800589

A. Momber, “Corrosion and corrosion protection of support structures for offshore wind energy devices (OWEA)”, Materials and Corrosion, vol. 62, n° 5, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/maco.201005691

D.T. Griffith, N. Yoder, B. Resor, J. White, J; Paquette, A. Ogilvie and V. Peters, “Prognostic control to enhance offshore wind turbine operations and maintenance strategies,” in Proceedings of the 2012 EWEA, Copenhagen (Denmark), pp. 1-12, April, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/1088103

ISO 20340. Performance requirements for protective paint systems for offshore and related structures. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ci.2000.22.6.167

ISO 12944-2. Paints and varnishes-corrosion protection of steel structures by protective paint systems-part 2: classification of environments. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization, 1998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3403/01473645

A.W. Momber, P. Plagemann and V. Stenzel, “Performance and integrity of protective coating systems for offshore wind power structures after three years under offshore site conditions,” Renewable Energy, vol. 74, pp. 606-617, 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2014.08.047

J.P. Ault, “The use of coatings for corrosion control on offshore oil structures,” Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings, vol. 23, n°4, p. 42-46, 2006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-408-00110-6.50044-2

F. Martin and F. Schröder, “Stahllösungen für offshore-windkraftanlagen,” Stahlbau, vol. 74, n°6, pp. 435, 2005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stab.200590089

F. Lüddecke, W. Rücker, M. Seidel and J. Assheuer, “Tragverhalten von stahlgussbauteilen in offshore-windenergie-anlagen unter vorwiegend ruhender und nicht ruhender Beanspruchung,” Stahlbau, vol. 77, n°9, pp. 639, 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stab.200810077

M. Dobrowolski, Presentation at Windforce 09 – Direction Offshore, Bremerhaven (Germany), July 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stab.201490135

S. Martens, Presentation at Windforce 09 – Direction Offshore, Bremerhaven (Germany), July 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stab.201490135

D. Wilhelmsson and T. Malm, “Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 79, pp. 459, 2008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2008.04.020

J. Birklund and A.H. Petersen, “Development of the fouling community on turbine foundations and scour protections in Nysted offshore wind farm,” Survey Report, Energi E2 A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark), 2004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/ijesd.2002.000722

R. Frederiksen, M. Bech and S.B.Leonhard, “Hard bottom substrate monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm,” Survey Report No. 1, Energi E2 A/S, Fredericia (Denmark), 2004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/we.1760

H. van der Mijle Meijer, “Corrosion in offshore wind energy – A major issue,” in Proceedings of the 2009 Offshore Wind Power Conference, Den Helder (Netherlands), February 2009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/wnwec.2009.5335769

Klassifikations und Bauvorschriften, Teil VI-10: Richtlinien für Korrosionsschutz und Beschichtungssysteme, Ausgabe, Germanischer Lloyd AG, Hamburg (Germany), 2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527625659.ch4q

DIN EN ISO 8044, Korrosion vonMetallen und Legierungen – Grundbegriffe und Definitionen, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Berlin (Germany), December 1999.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-322-82985-6_5

G. Bhuyan, G. Darou, C. Blondeau and M. Edmunds, Integrated Tidal Current Demonstration Project at Race Rocks, British Columbia, Canada. European Commission Coordinated Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE), Copenhagen (Denmark), April 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/1179179

RaceRocks.com, “Renewable Energy for Race Rocks,” RaceRocks.com, [Online]. Available: http://www.racerocks.com/racerock/energy/tidalenergy/tidalenergy.htm [Accessed July 2016].

M.E.H. Benbouzid, J.A. Astolfi, S. Bacha, J.F. Charpentier, M. Machmoum, T. Maître et D. Roye, Concepts, Modeling and Control of Tidal Turbines, Marine Renewable Energy Handbook, Chap. 8, p. 219-278, ISBN: 978-1-84821-332-6, Wiley, ISTE, Paris 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118603185.ch8

Titah-Benbouzid, H., Benbouzid, M., An Up-to-Date Technologies Review and Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters, (2015) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 10 (1), pp. 52-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15866/iree.v10i1.5159

Z. Zhou, F. Scuiller, J.F. Charpentier, M.E.H. Benbouzid and T. Tang, “An up-to-date review of large marine tidal current turbine technologies,” in Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE PEAC, Shanghai (China), pp. 448-484, November 2014.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/peac.2014.7037903

S. Benelghali, M.E.H. Benbouzid and J.F. Charpentier, “Marine tidal current electric power generation technology: State of the art and current status,” in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE IEMDC, Antalya (Turkey), vol. 2, pp. 1407-1412, May 2007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iemdc.2007.383635

L. Hoipkemeier-Wilson, J.F. Schumacher, M.L. Carman, A.L. Gibson, A.W. Feinberg, M.E. Callow, J.A. Finlay, J. A. Callow, and A.B. Brennan, “Adhesion and motility of fouling diatoms on a silicone elastomer,” Biofouling, vol. 20, n°6, pp. 323-329, 2004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927010410001662689

H. S. Preiser, A. Ticker, G. S. Bohlander, D. W. Taylor in: J. D. Costlow and R. C. Tipper (Eds.), Marine Biodeterioration: An Interdisciplinary Study, Naval Institute Press, MD, USA, p. 223, 1984.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9720-9_28

R.A. Devilla, M.T. Brown, M. Donkin, G.A. Tarran, J. Aiken and J.W.Readman, “Impact of antifouling booster biocides on single microalgal species and on a natural marine phytoplankton community,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 286, pp. 1-12, 2005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps286001

L.S. Shtykova, D. Ostrovskii, P. Handa, K. Holmberg and M. Nydén, “NMR Diffusometry and FTIR in the study of the interaction between antifouling agent and binder in marine paints,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 51, pp. 125, 2004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2004.02.009

H.E. Yong, K. Krishnamoorthy, K.T. Hyun and S.J. Kim, “Preparation of ZnO nanopaint for marine antifouling applications,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 29, pp. pp. 39-4225, September 2015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2015.04.020

K.W. Ng, W.H. Lam and S. Pichiah, “A review on potential applications of carbon nanotubes in marine current turbines,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 28, pp. 331-339, December 2013.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.018


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2020 Praise Worthy Prize