Load Management for Grid-Connection of Household Photovoltaic Systems without Net-Metering

Sangita Sharma(1), Ujjwol Tamrakar(2), Reinaldo Tonkoski(3*), David W. Galipeau(4)

(1) Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at South Dakota State University, United States
(2) Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at South Dakota State University, United States
(3) Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, United States
(4) Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, United States
(*) Corresponding author

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Grid-tied systems have become the most common type of residential photovoltaic installation and self-consumption has become a key issue to improve cost effectiveness of these systems in the absence of feed-in tariffs and net-metering. The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of load management and battery storage in increasing self-consumption in residential grid connected PV systems without net-metering. Home loads were divided into time manageable, storage capable and non-manageable loads. Shifting the time manageable and storage capable loads from evening hours to PV generation hours increased self-consumption by up to 50%. The addition of batteries to a grid tied PV system can increase self-consumption to 100%, but there was no net cost savings due to the additional cost of the batteries and power conditioning unit. Grid- tied PV systems with no net metering should be designed for daytime loads only to maximize cost effectiveness. A theoretical seasonal analysis shows that self-consumption through load management doubled in winter compared to summer. Load management can be an effective tool to make residential grid-tied PV systems economically beneficial to consumers as feed-in-tariffs are reduced and caps on net-metering are increased.
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Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Systems; Load Management; Self-Consumption; Net-Metering

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