### Optimal Oxygen Stoichiometry for Maximum Net Power Output of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

^{(*)}

*Corresponding author*

**DOI's assignment:**

*the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!*

**Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)**

#### Abstract

This paper investigates the issue of maximum net electrical power output for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. Under certain operating points characterized by output current or equivalently load resistance, the electrical power output of the PEM fuel cell is proportional to oxygen stoichiometry. However, the extra electrical power needed for the air blower is proportional to the supplied oxygen. In this paper, the optimal oxygen stoichiometry is derived as functions of the stack output current and the blower energy efficiency. Therefore, to obtain a maximum net power output for a PEM fuel cell, the implementation of oxygen stoichiometry can be tuned on-line according to the specification of blower efficiency and the instantaneous value of the output current. The analytical derivation is based on third-order nonlinear PEM fuel cell dynamics with the system parameter values of a Ballard 5 kW PEM fuel cell system. The proposed approach is verified through the quantities of net power output as obtained from both equilibrium operation conditions and time response simulation based on the formulated fuel cell nonlinear dynamics *Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.*

#### Full Text:

PDF#### References

Y. Wang, K.S. Chen, J. Mishler, S.C. Cho, X.C. Adroher, A review of polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Technology, applications, and needs on fundamental research, Applied Energy, vol. 88, 2011, pp. 981-1007.

J. Cho, H.S. Kim, K. Min, Transient response of a unit proton-exchange membrane fuel cell under various operating conditions, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 185, 2008, pp. 118-28.

J. Benziger, E. Chia, J.F. Moxley, I.G. Kevrekidis, The dynamic response of PEM fuel cell to changes in load, Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 60, 2006, pp. 1743-1759.

Y. Tang, W. Yuan, M. Pan, Z. Li, G. Chen, Y. Li, Experimental investigation of dynamic performance and transient responses of a kW-class PEM fuel cell stack under various load changes, Applied Energy, vol. 87, 2010, pp. 1410-1417.

Dursun, E., Ozalp, G.Y., Kilic, O., Experimental analysis and electrical modeling of PEM fuel cell's MEA, (2010) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 5 (4), pp. 1595-1599.

W.M. Yan, X.D. Wang, D.J. Lee, X.X. Zhang, Y.F. Guo, A. Su, Experimental study of commercial size proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance, Applied Energy, vol. 88, 2011, pp. 392-396.

R.F. Mann, J.C. Amphlett, MAI Hopper, H.M. Jensen, B.A. Peppley, P.R. Roberge, Development and application of a generalized steady-state electrochemical model for a PEM fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 86, 2000, pp. 173-180.

S.V. Puranik, A. Keyhani, Khorrami F, State-space modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 25, 2010, pp. 804-13.

J.C. Amphlett, R.M. Baumert, R.F. Mann, B.A. Peppley, P.R. Roberge, Performance modeling of the Ballard mark IV solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 142, 1995, pp. 1-9.

P.C. Chen, The dynamics analysis and controller design for the PEM fuel cell under gas flowrate constraints, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 36, 2011, pp. 3110-3122.

J. Hasikos, H. Sarimveis, P.I. Zervas, N.C. Markatos, Operational optimization and real-time control of fuel-cell systems, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 193, 2009, pp. 258-268.

W. Wu, J.P. Xu, J.J. Hwang, Multi-loop nonlinear predictive control scheme for a simplistic hybrid energy system, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, 2009, pp. 3953-3964.

F.C. Wang, H.T. Chen, Y.P. Yang, J.Y. Yen, Multivariable robust control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 177, 2008, pp. 393-403.

J. O'Rourke, M. Arcak, M. Ramani, Real-time optimization of net power in a fuel cell system, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 187, 2009, pp. 422-430.

M. Becherif, D. Hissel, MPPT of a PEMFC based on air supply control of the motocompressor group, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 35, 2010, pp. 12521-12530.

K.B. Kim, Improving dynamic performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell system using time delay control, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 195, 2010, pp. 6329-6341.

A. Niknezhadi, M. Allué-Fantova, C. Kunusch, C. Ocampo-Martínez, Design and implementation of LQR/LQG strategies for oxygen stoichiometry control in PEM fuel cell based systems, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, pp. 4277-4282.

J. Zhang, H. Li, Z. Shi, J. Zhang, Effects of hardware design and operation conditions on PEM fuel cell water flooding, International Journal of Green Energy, vol. 7, 2010, pp. 461-471.

R. Tirnovan, S. Giurgea, A. Miraoui, Strategies for optimizing the opening of the outlet air circuit's nozzle to improve the efficiency of the PEMFC generator, Applied Energy, vol. 88, 2011, pp. 1197-1204.

Y. Hou, M. Zhuang, G. Wan, The analysis for the efficiency properties of the fuel cell engine, Renewable Energy, vol. 32, 2007, pp. 1175-1186.

### Refbacks

- There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com**Copyright © 2005-2024**** Praise Worthy Prize**