Analysis of the Potential Energy Sources of Risk of Hand Tools in Presence of Hazardous Area in Segment of Oil and Gas
(*) Corresponding author
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)
One of the methods adopted to protect against explosion in the oil industry refers to the use of hand tools for non-ferrous materials, usually bronze, also known as non-sparking hand tools. Studies conducted by the American Petroleum Institute (API/USA) and European Standards disagree as to the risks involved in the energy of sparks produced by mechanical tools. The API advises that operations with mechanical equipment at high speeds and high contact pressures are extremely difficult to produce sparks capable of causing ignition of gases and vapors in the oil industry, and concludes that the risks involved are low for hydrocarbon vapors. The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission), however, has begun to formulate a set of standards on this topic. These standards will be adopted and may affect the operations in the oil and gas industry. Using data from the literature and laboratory tests, this paper aims to clarify and demonstrate the actual risks to the energy produced by ferrous and nonferrous hand tools.
Copyright © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.
Powell, F..Ignition Of Gases And Vapor – Review of Ignition of Flamamable Gases and Vaporsby Friction and Impact. (Industrial and Enginnering Chemistry, 1969, vol. 61 (12) pp. 29-37).
AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE. API 2214 - Spark Ignition Properties of Hand Tools. USA: API, 1956.
Riddlestone, H.G., Bartels, A. The Relative Hazards in the Use of Ferrous and Non Sparking Tools in the Petroleum Industry. (American Petroleum Institute,1965, 51 (495), 106-10)
AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE..API RP 2214 - Spark Ignition Properties of Hand Tools. 4. ed. USA: API, 2004.
Proust, C..A Few Fundamental Aspects about Ignition and Flame Propagation in Dust Clouds.IntJournal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 20 (2007), p. 349–365. Elsevier Ltd.
Proust, C., Hawksworth, S., Rogers, R., Neyer, M., Lakic, D., Raveau, D., Hervé, P., Pina, V., Petitfrère, C., Lefebvre, X. Development of a Method for Predicting the Ignition of Explosive Atmospheres by Mechanical Friction and Impacts (MECHEX). Int. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries.(2006). Volume 19 p. 104-120. Elsevier Ltd.
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS. ASTM E92-82 (2003) - Standard Test Method for Vickers Hardness of Metallic Materials.USA: 1982 reaprovada em 2003. 9 p.
Schuth, K. H., Palasio, C.M. Jr. Ferramentas Anti Faiscantes. Net, Rio de Janeiro, janeiro 2012. In http://www.ecivilnet.com/artigos/ferramentas_antifaiscantes. htm: 02/01/2012,13h53
Madakson, P.B..The Frictional Behavior of Materials(Wear,1983, pp. 191-206.)
Olson, D.L., Maroef, I., Park, Y.D., Feasibility Of Thermite Sparking With Impact Of Rusted Steel Onto Aluminum Coated Steel, (Colorado School of Mines, 2002, p. 66).
U.S. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (U.S.OSHA). OSHA 29 CFR 1910.106:Flammable and combustible liquids. In: http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_id=9752&p_table=STANDARDS. 11/01/2012, 10h22.
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS. ASTM E680 - 79 - Standard Test Method for Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity of Solid-Phase Hazardous Materials. USA: 2007. (Reapproved 2011) 7p. In http://www.astm.org/Standards/E680.htm, 18/02/2012, 10h30.
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION. IEC 60079-11: Explosive atmospheres: Part 11: protection by intrinsic safety “i”. Geneve, 2011.Ed. 6, 289 p.
HawksworthS., Rogers R., Proust, C., Beyer, M, Schenk, S., Gummer, J., Raveau, D.: Mechanical Ignition Hazards in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres - EC Project MECHEX.Int. ESMG Symposion on Process Safety and Industrial Explosion Protection (ExplosionRisk), Nuremberg, Germany (2004).
ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS. ABNT NBR NM ISO 6508-1 - Materiais metálicos – Ensaio de dureza Rockwell - Parte 1: Método de ensaio (escalas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T). Rio de Janeiro. 2008. 27 p.
INATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION. Memorandum: NFPA 30 ROC TC Letter Ballot (A2011). USA, Massachusetts, Quincy, 2010.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Please send any question about this web site to email@example.com
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize